Ring A: 12/18: Proto-Drem
U leelenun'ilaj'a, Ja
b'obmbihoonj'o gbaŋuunj'o. Gbarubo nobuhoza
g'abu g'awinj'o d'abe U laaŋkom
ndosanjijaŋema. Ncirandosanjawa nambawa laaŋkom gbe
d'abe U ndində be ncirandosanjawambuŋa. Gbarubo bu g'oondə gbe ncirandosanjawa
mesəl. U ntema mbumbo gbe ho momb'omantoro.
U nci ncirandosanjawa
nde nalàaŋkóm. U nə g'awi njabig'ishəwa Nuŋ
g'abu njabig'ishəwa Nuŋ gesənjabuu
ncirandosanjawawa. Gbarubo ho momb'omantoro gbe
In the beginning of the day a person was going delivering mail with his wagon.
He stopped and waited for a time, a person fell down on his face onto the path. This happened as the deliver was going to the plaza.
He held a branch up since he was bothered by an animals whining. A cat appeared upset and in danger.
The cat stayed since he tried to influence the cats trust. The deliverer acted playfully and gave the cat a little food. He thought over his situation and went to his wagon.
He cursed the cat who was still not satisfied. He grabbed the handle of his umbrella in order to protect himself from the cold rain.
He held his umbrella in order to best protect himself from the cat. The deliverer went to his wagon and returned home.
He was upset all day since the cat whined.
One early morning a certain person was going around with his motorcycle delivering mail.
When he stopped and waited for a while, the person fell down on his face onto the road. This happened as the deliverer was going to the plaza.
He held up a flute since he was bothered by an animals whining. It appeared to be a cat that was upset and in danger.
The cat just stayed put even when he was trying to win over the cats trust. The Deliverer acted playfully and gave the cat a little bit of food. He thought over his situation and went back to his vehicle.
He cursed the cat which was still not satisfied. He grabbed the handle of his umbrella to protect himself from the icy rain.
He wielded his umbrella in order to defend himself but the cat stayed and so the deliverer went back to his vehicle and went home.
All day he was upset since the cat whined.
Mostly SVO, but without an Object, the order becomes VS. One really
doesn't need to worry to much about tones, but there is one distinct
case which needed attention, as one can see the difference on the
Note that there is A LOT of ‘stuff drop', all those little
words in English don't show in Proto-Drem, so one has to fill-in the
gaps on their own. Context is key here.
For chains of verbs, remember that serial verbs always act like a
chain of events; the 1st verb is the first thing done, and so on…
TENSE/ASPECT/MOOD is not seen basically in PD, so once again, you'll
have to rely on context to get an idea on what is past & what is
Not that with any incorporation, the verb root is ALWAYS (99.99% of
the time) attached to the object root. So expect [stuff-subject]
[stuff-verb-object-stuff] as far as how affixes look.
One consonant mutation, ALWAYS realize that when a consonant cluster
occurs, the 1st consonant gets dropped, and the preceding vowel is
lengthened (ie ehl -> eel).
Njija v. to whine
Ncirandosanjawa n. cat (thought of as a mountain lion)
Naho v. to stay
Njabi v. to protect
-nja LOC – in
Ndosa n. animal
Laa?kom v. upset, bothered
Mes n. food
Gbe CONJ – and
B'ob v. to fall
-mb'i LOC – down
-bo DOER verb (i.e. sculpt + DOER = sculpter)
Ndese n. day
Nju?u TIMEAFF – beginning
Ja n. person
Ho v. to go
-za CNVA - -ing; also VERB -> STATIVE NOUN
Nobu v. to happen
?ema CAUS (think,, ‘by')
Nambowa v. to appear
Ndind? v. to influence, manipulate
G'od v. to play
-nd? CNVA - -fully; also NOUN -> ADVERB
B'om v. cold
G'ish? n. rain
Hondeh v. return home
G'awi n. branches, stick, handle
Na NEG – no, not
Ntig TIMEAFF – all
-(?)l DEG – a little, little bit
n? v. to grab
g'abu v. to hold
-b'o LOC – up
Gbaru v. to deliver
Lenu v. to wait
Len v. to stop, finish
Hob n. face
Gba?ush n. path, road, trail
Ri?i n. danger
Ges(h) SUPERLATIVE (think… good, better, best)
Bu v. to act
G'iwe n. open space, area (a communal ‘plaza-like' area for the village)
Mbu?a v. to trust
Làa?kóm v. Satisfy
momb'omantoro n. wagon
?u? in order to…
be v. to try
Njabig'ish?wa n. umbrella