Ring B: 2/20: Tatari Faran
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kueharan naritai'i ihirasan imaisinan tsen utu sei.
jiras baranis ijiinan bunaheibikas te' iti hamra epan pai tatitis nikefatai samanan arapas ipai haras ko aram.
kapi ipai hamra kiran pesa'atan ka heka sumanan atuan aram. daha tara'is apa ei tsuni kauhi burut karat sei ira. kiran tara' ka kapa pera kauhi fisei daha atu ta'an, fei sei paka tumitai pepai tsit. tara' ka hena juerat pai nikefatai arapas no, hena sa isi mahinai puru kumai kiki, diti iti isi upitai kefatai samanan so. fei kei piana' irei hike. tara' ka kakai jiras me pata' feis sa heka ita, pata' sa paka imis juju', fei sei hena akuka hujai tara'an na, simuini sahu kapi ipai tsi. kana iti upitai kefatai samanan so dakat.
bara baranis kauhin sa kueras puru eka nari.
A funny story to soothe your winter depression
One morning in the twelfth month, the following was seen in the street at the pickup point of the guardian's chariot.
There, a young man, an apprentice, was in front of the hedge of a garden. On his shoulder was a fat, red lynx cat. The young man tried to get it down from his shoulder, but it always balanced well. He looked at the pickup point and became more and more anxious, because soon the guardian's chariot will arrive. It continued to pester him. Once, he managed to get its paw on the fence, but the paw [became] cold, and it (the lynx) climbed on his sack, and made itself comfortable there. At that time, the guardian's chariot arrived.
The rest of the lynx's day must had been even more hilarious.
kueharan naritai'i ihirasan imaisinan tsen kueharan naritai-'i i-hirasan imaisin-an tse-n funny_story to_cheer_up-INFIN AUX_CVY-depression winter-GEN 2sp-GEN utu sei. \\ utu sei in_order_to CVY.FEM jiras baranis ijiinan bunaheibikas te' iti hamra epan jiras baran-is ijiin-an buna-heibikas te' iti hamra epan one morning-PART moon-GEN two-ten ORD when see can pai tatitis nikefatai samanan arapas pai tatis-is ni-kefatai saman-an arap-as place street\PART-PART AUX_RCP-chariot guardian-GEN pick_up-REL_CVY ipai haras ko aram. \\ ipai haras ko aram at the_following ORG.NEUT COMPL kapi ipai hamra kiran pesa'atan ka heka sumanan kapi ipai hamra kiran pesa'at-an ka heka suman-an There at see young_man foundry-GEN ORG.MASC hedge guardian-GEN atuan aram. daha tara'is apa ei tsuni kauhi burut atuan aram daha tara'-is apa ei tsuni kauhi burut in_front_of COMPL shoulder 3sp-PART on also find lynx fat karat sei ira. kiran tara' ka kapa pera kauhi karat sei ira kiran tara' ka kapa pera kauhi red CVY.FEM COMPL young_man 3sp ORG.MASC put_down try lynx fisei daha atu ta'an, fei sei paka fi=sei daha atu ta'an fei sei paka that=CVY.FEM shoulder taken_off_of down.COMPL 3sp CVY.FEM but tumitai pepai tsit. tara' ka hena juerat pai tumitai pepai tsit. tara' ka hena juerat pai to_balance always COMPL 3sp ORG.MASC and look place nikefatai arapas no, hena sa isi ni-kefatai arap-as no hena sa isi AUX_RCP-chariot pick_up-REL_CVY RCP.NEUT and CVY.MASC therefore mahinai puru kumai kiki, diti iti isi upitai mahinai puru kumai kiki diti iti isi upitai worry more increasingly COMPL a_little_while when because arrive kefatai samanan so. fei kei piana' irei hike. kefatai saman-an so fei kei piana' irei hike chariot guardian-GEN CVY.NEUT 3sp ORG.FEM disturb continue COMPL tara' ka kakai jiras me pata' feis sa heka ita, tara' ka kakai jiras me pata' fei-s sa heka ita 3sp ORG.MASC cause one time paw 3sp-PART CVY.MASC hedge on pata' sa paka imis juju', fei sei hena akuka hujai pata' sa paka imis juju', fei sei hena akuka hujai paw CVY.MASC but cold COMPL 3sp CVY.FEM and climb sack tara'an na, simuini sahu kapi ipai tsi. kana iti tara'-an na si-muini sahu kapi ipai tsi kana iti 3sp-GEN RCP-MASC CVY.FEM-comfort REFL there at COMPL now when upitai kefatai samanan so dakat. \\ upitai kefatai saman-an so dakat arrive chariot guardian-GEN CVY.NEUT COMPL bara baranis kauhin sa kueras puru eka nari. \\ bara baran-is kauhi-n sa kueras puru eka nari remainder day-PART lynx-GEN CVY-MASC funny more must COMPL
Sentence StructureThe types of statements in Tatari Faran:
- Statements of equivalence: states that two NP's are equal.
- Adjectival statements
- Statements of existence/being
- Verbal statements
- Equivalence: subject(conveyant) - target(absolutive)
- Adjectival: subject(conveyant) - adjective - complement
- Existence/Verbal: subject - verb - arguments - complement
Note: whether or not a noun phrase is the subject is independent of the noun case. Noun case determines the semanticrole of the NP relative to the verb/predicate, and is independent of the syntactic subject role.
The above applies to standalone clauses. Within complex constructs, the following modifications take place:
- In conjoined clauses, if they share the same subject, it may be elided.
One of two things may happen:
- The case particle of the elided NP modifies the conjunction, indicating the semantic role of the elided NP in the conjoined clause.
- No conjunction is present, but the verb acquires a case prefix indicating the role of the elided NP in the conjoined clause.
- In conjoined clauses, the verb complement may be omitted in all but the last clause. This is usually used when a dramatic effect is desired.
- In cause-and-effect statements, the conjunction _isi_ is present in BOTH the antecedent and the consequent. The only distinguishing feature is the presence of the complement in the consequent, and its overt absence in the antecedent.
Tatari Faran verbs are mainly isolating, except in subordinate clauses, where they conjugate for the role of the head noun in the subordinate clause, and in infinitive clauses, where the infinitive form of the verb is used.
Adverbs are often used where English would use an auxiliary verb. For example, tsana epan - I can speak; tsana irei - I keep speaking; tsana bat - I stop speaking.
Tatari Faran complements are words appearing at the end of an indicative clause whose sole purpose is to strengthen, reinforce the sense of the verb or predicative adjective, and give a firm conclusion to the utterance. Although the lexicon gives the meaning of a complement, the glossed meaning is only meant to add nuance and overtones to the main predicate, and should not be taken literally.
Every verb and every adjective is paired with at least one complement. Sometimes, the choice of complement can decide which of a verb's different meanings is intended. Sometimes, a verb may be paired with a complement not usually used with it, in order to color the verb with a nuance not usually associated with it.
NounsNouns are marked for two sets of cases: the 3 core cases, and the secondary cases. With the 3 core cases, there are TWO ways a noun can be marked for them:
- Primary case marking:
- Indicated using case clitics at the end of the NP (after any adjectives, subordinate clauses, and other modifiers). Case clitics are inflected for case and gender.
- Primary case marking is used for NP's in the main clause.
- Auxiliary case marking:
- Marked using a case prefix attached to the noun.
- These case prefixes only inflect for case, not for gender.
- Auxiliary case marking is only used in subordinate clauses.
- The originative case is used for denoting source, active agent, origin, starting point.
- The conveyant case is used for denoting motion, patient, undergoer, that which is conveyed. It is also used as the subject of adjectival clauses.
- The receptive case is used for denoting recipient, destination, result, target.
In verbs of motion, the originative denotes the starting point of the motion, the conveyant denotes the person/thing undergoing the motion, and the receptive denotes the destination of the motion.
Sensory verbs are divided into two categories:
- Active directing of the sensory organs towards a particular object: originative = person doing the sensing; receptive = object. E.g., juerat - to look.
- Passive receiving of sensory information from an object: originative = object which is sensed; receptive = person receiving the sense. E.g., hamra - to see.
In verbs of transferrence, the originative is used for the giver, the conveyant for the gift, and the receptive for the recipient.
Nouns are also inflected for secondary case:
- The genitive denotes possession, source, or belonging. It is formed by suffixing -n to vowel-final nouns, and -an to consonant-final nouns. E.g., san faran - person of Fara (person from Fara), fuan bata'an - wife of the chief.
- The partitive denotes subset or a component relationship. For example, pika bunaris - hand of the woman, bunas sanis - two of the men. The partitive is formed by suffixing -s to vowel-final nouns, and -is to consonant-final nouns. However, if the final consonant is _s_, it mutates into _tis_ instead. For example: panis -> panitis (not *panisis).
- The appositive, or compositive, denotes equivalence with the head noun. It is formed like the genitive, but with an additional i- prefixed to the noun. For example: huu iteken - I, Teke; diru ihinan - servant girl. (Compare: diru hinan - girl of the servant.)
- The absolutive: the noun appears with no case marking. This is only used in statements of equivalence.
Nouns may optionally be marked for plurality using the prefix he-. However, this is usually used only for emphasis; so a singular noun may refer to either singular or plural (must be inferred from context).
- 1st person:
huu "I" mana "we" (does not include the listener(s)) faan "we" (includes the listener(s))
- 2nd person:
tse "you(sg)" huna "you(pl)"
- 3rd person:
tara' "he/she" (animate) diin "they" (animate) fei "it/they" (both sg. and pl., inanimate)
Note: 'animate' refers mainly to humans and close pets. Other animals are usually considered 'inanimate'.
The 3rd person pronouns are often used as demonstratives, and as such, modify the noun they refer to. E.g., diru tara' sei - that girl; tiki fei - that rabbit.
The demonstrative mei, unlike fei, is used for both animate/inanimate nouns: diru mei - this girl; tiki mei - this rabbit.
Note: fei does not contract when used as a pronoun, but is prone to contract when used as a demonstrative.
Adjectives follow the noun, but precede the case clitic. This also applies to genitives, partitives, appositives, and relative clauses.
Subordinate clauses & Infinitives
Relative clauses are embedded between the head noun and its case clitic. The relative verb appears at the end of the relative clause, and is inflected for the case function of the head noun in the relative clause. The arguments to the verb appear between the head noun and the verb, and use auxiliary case marking (i.e. with prefixes).
kiran nihuu hamrakan sa young_man I-AUX_RCP see-ORG CVY The young man that I saw.Standalone equivalent:
kiran ka hamra huu na [aram] young_man ORG see I RCP COMPL I see the young man.
Infinitives are formed with the infinitive verb appearing first, followed by any argument NP's in auxiliary case marking, followed by a neuter case clitic. Example:
tapa'i ihuu nibuara so - the going of me to the volcano (i.e. my going to the volcano).
Infinitives in TF are essentially gerundives, as is shown above.
Tatari Faran postpositions are the equivalent of English prepositions, except that they follow the noun they modify. Tatari Faran has a rich set of postpositions describing different spatial and temporal relationships with the main predicate. Nouns governed by a postposition lose their case clitic in the main clause; in subordinate clauses, governed nouns are always conveyant. Postpositions are normally unaccented in speech (their lexical stress position is pronounced only in relative clauses).
Postpositional phrases may also modify nouns. In this case, it appears where a relative clause would. Its governed NP appears in auxiliary case marking. It may also govern an infinitive, in which case the infinitive phrase omits the neuter case clitic.
buara matsite'i ibaan ipai sa The volcano where the old lady perished.
Ordinals are formed using the particle te': noun numeral te'.
samat jiras te' - the first man samat bunas te' - the second man
Numerals of different orders of magnitude (powers of 5) may be composed by stringing together their roots, in small-to-large order:
jiras(1) + kuanas(20) = jirakuanas (21)
Numerals belong to the more general class of quantifiers. Quantifiers are used in the following ways:
- noun quantifier
- Indefinite cardinal. E.g., "two men appeared" - samat bunas.
- quantifier partitive-noun
- Definite cardinal. E.g., "two of the men came" - bunas samatis.
- quantifier me
Multiplier (once, twice, ...):
kakai jiras me - do it once kakai bunas me - do it twice kakai pita me - do it a few times
Points of caution
- Secondary noun cases and auxilliary noun cases are constructed using various prefixes, suffixes, and circumfixes. This may result in lookalike forms with unrelated words; care must be taken to properly distinguish between the possibilities in this case.
- Due to the nature of the case system, some verbs may acquire unexpected idiomatic meanings when used with certain cases. Care must be taken when translating to not confuse the Tatari Faran "subject" with the subject of the English equivalent of the verb, since the two do not always correspond.
- Some common clitics and particles may contract due to euphony. These are noted in the glossary.
The following notes may help in interpreting the intent of the text.
In most villages in the Fara, children are essentially home-schooled and learn their family's trade, which in most cases is either farming or hunting. Very few have the opportunity to learn another trade. However, in the larger towns, recent technological achievements made it compelling to introduce an apprenticeship system to the community, whereby young people, mostly in their mid- to late-teenage years, may become an apprentice to learn a special trade with a master. This system mostly applies to new trades such as metallurgy, mechanical engineering (in its primitive form, of course), and construction. Sometimes, a particularly kind master would send a chariot, or drive one himself, to pick up the apprentice who may live far away at the outskirts of the town, for his lessons.
|-as||rel. cvy. suffix.|
|i-||aux. cvy. case marker.|
|ni-||aux. rcp. case marker.|
|si-||fem. cvy. conjunctive v. prefix.|
|ahai||compl. to do something, whatever, whatsoever. Etym: _hai_, "thing", "something".|
|akuka...anan||v. to climb (a ladder, a tree).|
|anan||compl. "upwards", "up to the top".|
|aram||compl. to behold.|
|arap...ikat||v. to pick up, to take (something). Taker in rcp., thing taken in cvy., place or person taken from in org..|
|asai||compl. reddeningly, of a crimson, bloody color.|
|apa||post. on, on top of, resting on.|
|atu||post. falling off of, taken off from, plucked out from.|
|atuan||post. in front of, ahead of.|
|bara||quant. (1) (indefinite) some of, a part of, a subset of; (2) (definite) the rest of, the remainder of.|
|baran||masc. n. (1) morning, daybreak; (2) day.|
|bunas||num. two (2).|
|burut...sarapi||adj. fat, well-fed (of animals, esp. for eating).|
|daha||masc. n. shoulder.|
|dakat||compl. to transact, to complete a negotiation, to consummate.|
|diti iti||adv. in a little bit, in a few moments, soon.|
|ei||(1) nominal conj., "and", "also". Follows case clitic of modified NP. (2) adv. "also". Note that it can only occur in adverbial position in this usage, not as a conj..|
|eka||adv. (1) strong imperative marker, "must"; (2) surely, obviously.|
|epan||adv. "able to", "it is possible for", "can".|
|fei||(1) 3rd pers. inanim. pron. it; (2) dem. n. that, those. Used only for inanim. things. Used both as sg. and pl.; the pl. _hefei_ is only used when one desires to emphasize its plurality.|
|fisei||contraction of _fei_ and _sei_.|
|hamra...aram||v. (1) to see. Seer in rcp.. (2) to be seen, to appear.|
|haras||dem. n. (1) adj. the next, the one following; (2) adv. the following, as follows. Forward-pointing demonstrative.|
|heibikas||num. ten (10).|
|heka||neut. n. hedge, fence, enclosure.|
|hena||conj. "and then".|
|hike||compl. (1) to bring bad news, to bring ill, to cause trouble. (2) to cause discomfort. (3) to be in discord.|
|hiras||compl. fading, fainting away, wearing off.|
|hirasan||neut. n. depression, chronic unhappiness, weariness, (mental) fatigue.|
|hujai||masc. n. a sack, a bag.|
|ia||compl. to be content.|
|ijiin||fem. n. (1) moon; (2) + num., month.|
|imaisin||fem. n. winter, cold season.|
|imis...juju'||adj. cold, freezing.|
|ipai||post. at, in, within the boundary of (a location).|
|ira||compl. (1) to be seen, to be found.|
|(2) to be (only in statements of being).|
|irei||adv. to continue to, continuingly, to resume to.|
|isi||conj. "because", "therefore". (See grammar notes.)|
|iti||temp. post. when, during, at (a particular time).|
|itu||compl. to cast a stare on.|
|jiras||num. one (1).|
|juerat...itu||v. to look at, to stare at.|
|ka||masc. org. case clitic.|
|kakai...ahai||v. to cause, to take action, to make, to do. A generic verb that can refer to a wide variety of actions. Doer in the org., things being acted on in the cvy., and the result of the action in the rcp..|
|kana||(1) temp. adv. now, at this time, immediately. (2) temp. post. case marker, this time.|
|kapa...pa'||v. to let go of, to drop (an object), to cast down or cast away.|
|kapi||neut. n. there, over there, that place.|
|kauhi||fem. n. lynx cat, esp. the most common white-furred lynx native to Fara.|
|kei||fem. org. case clitic.|
|kefatai||neut. n. horse-drawn chariot.|
|kiki||compl. excited, agitated.|
|kiran||masc. n. young man, youth.|
|ko||neut. org. case clitic.|
|kueharan||fem. n. rumour, anecdote, children's story, joke. Etym.: kuera (to laugh) + maharan (story, history).|
|kueras...nari||adj. funny, prone to laughter.|
|mahinai...ia||v. to feel the want for (a person), to think of (a loved person) continually, to have (a person) in the heart.|
|mahinai...kiki||v. + infin. to fret, to worry, to be anxious.|
|me||adv. (how many) times.|
|muini...seira||v. to soothe, to comfort.|
|na||masc. rcp. case clitic.|
|nari||compl. to feel funny or happy.|
|naritai...muin||v. to cheer up, to make (one) happy, to cherish, to comfort.|
|no||neut. rcp. case clitic.|
|pa'||compl. to strike the ground.|
|pai||neut. n. place, location.|
|paka||conj. but, however.|
|pata'||masc. n. foot, paw.|
|pepai||adv. always, all the time.|
|pera||adv. to try to, to attempt to.|
|pesa'at||neut. n. (1) foundry, forge; (2) generic term for the place where apprentices are trained by their mentors.|
|piana'...hike||v. to disturb, pester, or annoy; to cause a commotion.|
|puru||cmp. adj. more, more of.|
|puru kumai||adv. more and more, increasingly.|
|sa||masc. cvy. case clitic.|
|sahu||refl. n. myself, yourself, him/herself, itself. Reflexively refers to subject NP.|
|saman||n. guardian, caretaker. A person in charge of watching over persons, children, or the proceeding of a certain operation to ensure that no disruptions occur.|
|sarapi||compl. to be cooked deliciously.|
|sei||fem. cvy. case clitic.|
|seira||compl. restful, serene, comforting.|
|so||neut. cvy. case clitic.|
|suman||fem. n. farm, plantation, garden.|
|ta'an||compl. "down", "down to the bottom"; hitting the ground, falling on the ground, reaching the floor.|
|tara'||3rd pers. sg. anim. pron.|
|tatis||neut. n. path, way, street.|
|tse||2nd pers. sg. pron.|
|tsi||compl. to dwell.|
|tsit.1||compl. to be pinched, to stick together, to fasten.|
|tsit.2||compl. expertly, skillfully, perfectly.|
|tsuni...ira||v. (1) to find; (2) to exist (used of inanim. objects), to be (in a certain place). The cvy. case is used for that which is found.|
|tumitai...tsit||v. to balance (oneself), esp. on one foot.|
|upitai...dakat||v. to arrive, to come.|
|utu||post. + infin. for the purpose of, in order to.|
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