Ring A: 15/18: Calénnawn
Gol dull úluboy, pòðawd-vinúyfa še úyfa se póðiwd uráronur glis.
Tésvo o glus orše móvralt, beše háqa anc qúna-umper pe-dwaf on ívolar
gowvupé so cétiwm. Sófa ley héxiwduv itúcca orše noraygódavrar.
O pòðawd-vinúyfa orše ddámvovra se xomp. Calássoše nopanaléya!2
O pòðawd-vinúyfa beše noraygódar so ðelc, nóri še púvuz tof, be
còwlo-xepúno s-bru patúfi. Faše lúxci fh féspi úlu sum o qáncabaduv
calásso. Ley fa orše gowsupévra so glus, beše panaléyas se rime.
Sófa o fubúttbov calásso ólayplaše bibúlmevra fénco!2 Úbbon ozayše
stábaday sno o pòðawd-vinúyfa orše xázevrann s-hísil, úrne byu
púvuz-vésti tof. Cas mìstaš-lènta-vésti pra num h calásso uráronur
hísil. Ólmo o pòðawd-vinúyfa orše lòyma-xabástavra uráronur o glus.
Sófa níwtvo awn-umper, nus ifúrtigla novúlmiš fh calàsso-folhéxiw.
Sometime during a morning, a messenger brought messages using wagons.
First, the wagon stopped, and waited a short time near the road that
leads to the market. But then, a howling animal was bothered. The
messenger grabbed a stick. A panther was seen! The messenger, bothered
by the danger, avoided him, and he attempted to win its trust. He gave
a little food to the playing panther. Next, seeing an opportunity, he
went to the wagon. But the cursed panther was not yet satisfied! It
began raining, and the messenger grabbed branches, so that he might
avoid it. One can best protect oneself against panthers using branches.
Finally the messenger has gone home with the wagon. But another day,
other people will be distressed by the panther-howling.
Translation from Nesheti
Sometime during a morning, a postman brought messages using wagons.
The first wagon stopped, and waited during a short time near the road
that leads to the marketplace. But then, a howling animal was
bothered. The postman grabbed a stick. A panther was seen! The
postman, bothered by the danger, avoided him, and he attempted to win
its trust. He gave the playing panther a little food. Next, seeing
an opportunity, he went to the wagon. But the cursed panther was not
satisfied! It began raining, and the postman grabbed branches, in order
to avoid it. You can best protect yourself against panthers using
branches. The postman has gone home with the last wagon. But another
day, other men will be distressed by the howling of a panther.
(1) Calénnawn is a pro-drop language, usually with SVO word order.
(2) $ is an alternative spelling for s-caron (i.e. s-hachek) for
non-UTF-8 environments. These represent the same letter (/S/).
(3) Acute and grave accents denote primary and (in compounds)
secondary stress, respectively. Vowels with acute or grave
accents are not fundamentally different from the plain vowels,
since the stress can shift when words are combined into
(4) Absence of an article in the nominative indicates indefiniteness.
(5) There is no copula "to be": a noun or adjective may be used
as predicate directly, which implies the copula "to be".
(6) "Dangling" prepositions must be interpreted as adverbs.
(7) Adjectives precede the nouns, but can also occur standalone
(e.g. the big [one]).
Cardinal numerals follow the nouns they belong to,
ordinals precede them.
(8) In compound words, the first part is the modifying part:
a predicate A-B is a B of type A.
Auxiliaries are used in this way too, with part B being the
auxiliary. The object of the verb may be used directly as
the object of the verb-auxiliary compound.
(9) The plural forms of nouns are formed by replacing the vowel
in the last syllable with |i|:
(10) There are two cases (in this text): nominative and accusative.
The noun case is marked on the article.
(11) All prepositions govern the nominative.
(12) Verbs are marked for aspect. Progressive aspect is marked with
the suffix -s. The perfective and cessitive aspect
are formed with the suffix |-vra|, which is infixed if the verb
ends in a consonant:
(13) Verbs have two voices: active and inverse. There are
corresponding active and inverse participles.
X-NOM panaléya Y-ACC. X sees Y
Y-NOM nopanaléya X-ACC. Y is seen by X
(14) Participles taking a direct object behave as prepositions
(see also note (11)).
(15) There are many conjunctions, nearly all of which express that
one constituent of the first sentence is identical to one of
the constituents in the second sentence. The constituent may
be left out from one of the sentences.
be (subject of 1st sent. is identical to subject of 2nd)
[prep]-dwaf (pre-/postpositional object of 1st sent. is identical
to the subject of the 2nd sentence)
(16) For nearly every conjunction, there is a "closing bracket" which
closes the second sentence and indicates that the first sentence
continues from that point on.
(17) Punctuation: there are two types of exclamation points:
!1 and !2. !2 is used for emotional utterances.
anc adj short
awn n day
aygódar v bother, annoy so.
be conj and (see note (15))
bibúlme v have (of some physical state)
-bov suffix -ed (inverse participle used as adjective)
bru pron (possessive pronoun) his/its (animate)
byu pron he (deontic, animate, 3SG, nominative)
calásso n (a certain kind of feline predator)
cas pron someone
cétiwm n market
cówlo v gain, win sth.
-day suffix has begun, is in progress (aspect: ózay .. -day)
ddámvo v take sth.
dull prep during, at (point in time)
-duv suffix -ing (active participle used as adjective)
-dwaf conj "that" see note (15)
ðelc n danger
fa pron he (epistemic, animate, 3SG, nominative)
fh /f@/ art the (concept/idea/mass/uncountable, accusative)
fubútt v curse so./sth.
fénco n hunger
féspi n food
fol- prefix act of .. (action, gerund)
gla adv (adverb or enclitic: future tense)
glus n wagon, cart
gol adv sometime
gowsupé v go towards
gowvupé v lead up to
h /@/ art the (concept/idea/mass/uncountable, nominative)
háqa v wait
héxiw v howl
hísul n branch
ifúrta n person
itúcca n animal
ívolar n street, road
lénta v protect so/sth.
ley adv next
lóyma adv back
lúxci v give
mis adv good
molt v to move
níwtvo numeral some unspecified (ordinal)
no(r)- prefix (verb prefix: inverse voice)
nóri conj (closing bracket for "be" construct, see note (16))
num prep away from
-nur suffix -ing (active participle)
nus adj other
o(n) art the (nominative, definite, countable)
ólaypla adv not yet stopped .. (ólaypla .. -vra)
ólmo adv finally
or adv (perfective aspect (or .. -vra))
ózay adv has begun, is in progress (aspect: ózay .. -day)
panaléya v see sth.
patúfi n trust
pe postp at, near (proclitic)
póðawd n message
pra pron himself (animate, 3SG, reflexive)
púvuz v avoid sth/so.
qáncaba v play
qúna n period of time
ríme n opportunity
-s suffix (aspect: progressive)
s- art the (proclitic) (accusative, definite, countable)
se(n) art a (accusative, indefinite, countable)
sno conj and
so art the (accusative, definite, countable)
stába v be (expresses weather conditions)
sum prep towards
sófa conj but
še adv (adverb or enclitic: past tense)
-taš suffix (superlative)
tésvo adv first
tof pron him (accusative, 3SG, animate)
úbbon n rain
úlu numeral a small amount (cardinal)
úluboy n morning
-umper postp during (enclitic)
uráro v use sth.
úrne conj so that (+deontic subject)
úyfa v bring
vésti v can
vi(n)- prefix (converts verb to noun) agent of .. (English -er)
-vra suffix has .. (perfective aspect (or .. -vra))
-vra suffix has not yet stopped .. (aspect: ólaypla .. -vra)
-vra suffix has stopped .. (cessitive aspect (-vra))
vúlmiš v distress so.
xabásta v go
xázenn v grab sth/so.
xepúno v try, attempt
xomp n stick, pole
3sg 3rd person singular
3pl 3rd person plural