Ring C: 1/8: Kash
HAMBIYAÇ ALO OLAMAYI CETRE
[titanju mandil yaveleto mesa çendere kendulan re yu memende yarungarona, i çender ya yañurundo ri hendiñ çenderi liya, yarungotato lusok mandilin:]
mam [aran] mandu hate [aran] maçeret alo lerowi tayu tayanju çelum, pun ri anjuçni ambinda iti andulañ, pun ri leroç londo lero londo ripa, kavan kravan, andoye andeçe, i mikasito mifarekto ri vunuweni angayimim velu, yunda-yunda vakep çumesa ri haniyumbim i eningambrim. sañ hate mamepunduñ sisami eçurami ri yuno leroç amaraç.
[i çender liya yameputo yakotato kuwani]
[titanju yakotato mandil:] ara mihimaçema.
[i yunoni re uritan ikotato iti irinjurato:]
amalero pakrunjanga ri angayini,
PORTIONS OF THE MARRIAGE CEREMONY
[Now the priest will give a golden chain that he has just blessed, to one of the candidates, and the candidate will place it on the neck of the other candidate, and recite after the priest:]
I [name] bind myself to you [name] from this day forward, whether in times of happiness or sadness, whether in days (full) of sun or rain, in good health or bad, wealth or poverty, and we will set forth on the course of our new life, always bound and united in soul and body. Thus I pledge to you my love and honor forever.
[And the other candidate will do and recite the same]
[Now the priest will say:] Let us pray to/call upon/ the Spirits
[And everyone in attendance will say or sing:]
Father Sun, shine upon their life,
Note: The style here is very formal and religious in nature. Consequently most nouns and verbs addressed to, or referring to, the Spirits carry the honorific prefix pra-/par- (and sometimes by sandhi pa-Cr-;. pa- before initial /r/)
Word order is basically SVO-S V IO DO; but pronoun objects precede the verb in the reverse order S DO IO V. Adjectives follow nouns, but numbers precede. Possessor follows possessed. In S V sentences, the order may be reversed.
Verbs are marked for tense-present 0, future -to with sandhi (no past tenses here) and in most cases show agreement with the subject in person/number-- Subject prefixes: 1s ma-, 2s ha-, 3s ya-; 1pl mi-, 2pl. hi-, 3pl. i-
There are derived forms--here, the inchoative ('becoming...') and the causative, best illustrated with Engl. 'the door is open (base ~stative); the door opens (inchoative); John opens the door (causative).' Kash caus. forms are usually the transitive counterparts of intrans. stative forms; caus. forms of transitive verbs usually show semantic changes.
Nouns (animate and inanimate) have 4 cases, sing. and plural; declension is regular. Sing. Nom. 0, Genitive -i, Dative -e, Acc.(anim.) -(V)n*, (inan.) 0 Anim. Plur. -(i)la, -(i)li, -(i)le, -(i)lan (the -i- occurs only with C-final bases). Inanim.Plur. Nom., Acc. -(V)ç*-the gen. and dat. endings are added to this.
*in C-final words, this means: copy the pre-final Vowel, e.g. amar, amaraç; but words that end in /-s/ merely change the s to ç.
Kash spelling requires an epenthetic y/w in cases where two vowels would occur in sequence--y after front vowels (and a+front V), w after back vowels (and a+back V), e.g kati 'face' > katiyi (gen.); lero 'day' > lerowi (gen.); kayi 'life' = /kai/.
Pronouns decline somewhat irregularly; their forms are given in the Vocabulary. Personal possession is shown by suffixes. NB the 3d pers. suffix /-ni/ indicates (1) simple possession 'his, her, its; their'; (2) esp. after prepositions, NounA+ni NounB = 'NounA of NounB' (for inanimates/abstracts); (3) definiteness of previously mentioned or understood inanim. antecedents-the demonstratives ya/yu mark definiteness of new material., and of animates.
The general locative preposition /ri/ + dative = motion to/toward, into; /ri/ + acc. = location in/at/on. The meaning is often supplemented with directional/locational words like "inside, top, back of" etc.--these carry the case markings and, usually, the suffix -ni, and the logical object of the prep. is then in the nominative.
Sandhi: When certain consonants come together at a morpheme boundary, various changes affect derived forms, suffixes, and in a few cases, the /-r/ of the honorific prefix:
- final nasal + (vl.)fricative > vl.stop at fricative's POA
- final nasal + (vd.)fricative > nasal at fricative's POA
- final nasal + vl.stop > (homorganic) nasal +voiced stop.
- final nasal1 + nasal2 > (homorg.) nasal+vd.stop at POA of nasal2
- base-final /r/ metathesizes with a following stop or nasal, becoming
resp. /stop+r/ and /homorganic nasal+stop+r/, while /-r+fricative/ > /stop+r/. 6.Exceptionally, when poss. -ni is added to a nasal-final form, the entire cluster > -ñ-, thus .n+ni, .m+ni, .ñ+ni all > ...ñi
In the romanized script, all symbols have their expected values, except: ç = [S], h = [x], c = [tS], j = [dZ], y = [j], and ñ in final position = velar [N], otherwise palatal. (Note that "ng" = [Ng].) In the Vocabulary, the "N" of the nominal and causative prefix merely indicates a nasal that undergoes sandhi (noml. > ñ before V, caus. > m before V).
akram be clear, see rumakram alo (prep.) from (takes genitive case) ama krahake the Spirit of Forests amacan see vacan amalero "Father Sun"-the Sun Spirit ambinda see minda anacangatila (mischievous) Spirits of Rocks añ- abstract noun-forming prefix andeçe see leçe andoye see toye andulañ see nulañ angayi see kayi anju time, moment; (conj.) when ara (mi-) hortatory particle, "let us..." aran name cetre to marry -(V)ç inanimate nom/acc. plural suffix çapus puffed out, inflated çehama(la) the Spirits of Nature, in Kash belief çelum back, behind; ri. (prep.) after; see tayanju... çeñanga the Wind Spirit çender candidate for religious marriage, i.e. the bride or groom çendripa the Rain Spirit çeret to bind (relig.) cetre to marry çu(k)- inchoative verb prefix çufat behavior çumesa (inchoative, see mesa) -e dative case suffix eçura honor eme also endo optative particle-'may it be..., let it be...' endo sañ (formulaic) may/let it be so eningar the human body farek to set forth fosi to sail hambiya piece; part, section haniyu (anim.) soul, mind, consciousness, "inmost being" hat 2nd pers. sing. pronoun, full/emphatic form; dative hate, te; acc.han haya light hendiñ neck -hi 2nd pers. plural possessive suffix hila 2nd pers. plural pronoun, emphatic/full form; gen. hili, -hi ~ -ki; dat. hile, acc. hin himaçema to pray to/call upon the Spirits (see also kimaçema) hunjañ to shine, glow i and (often omitted) -i genitive case suffix i- 3d pers. pl. subj. prefix -(i)la animate nom. plural suffix (the -i- only occurs after C-final words; the -a is dropped before the case endings inderoçe "Mother Sea", the Sea Spirit iti (conj.) or (may be omitted) -ka ~ -ga imperative marker (sing.) karona holy, blessed kasi to begin kati the face kavan healthy ~good health (see also kravan) kayi to live, be alive kendula (anim.) small gold chain, the sign of a relig. marriage -ki ~ -gi imperative marker (plur.) kinda the Earth Spirit kimaçema (n., irreg.) a prayer to the Spirits kota to say (see rungota) kravan not healthy ~poor health kuwa same, equal lamba large sheet of cloth; sail(s) of a ship leçe poor leñ (be) good 1. lero (inanim.) day 2. lero (anim.) sun liri (prep.) toward, with respect to, concerning liya (the) other, another londo full (of) lunduñ shelter lusok to follow ma- 1st pers. subj. prefix mandil priest, monk mam 1st pers. sing. pronoun, full/emphatic form; dative mame, me, acc. man matralap "Brother Lalap", the Spirit (mischievous, drunken) of Lalap, Cindu's lesser moon memende to have just... mepu to do, to make, to act; (as adj.) made of. mepunduñ to make an oath, to pledge mesa one mi- 1st pers. plural subj. prefix -mi 1st pers. sing. possessive suffix -mim 1st pers. plural possessive suffix mimik small minda be happy, smile nakayi yes (emphatic form) -(V)n anim. accusative case suffix -ni 3rd pers. sing/pl. possessive suffix--and other uses nihin top, top suface nila (anim.) they, those; gen. nili, dat. nile, acc. nin nulañ be sad ñurun to put, place olama religious ceremony, rite ondre night osan calm, serene par- ~pra- ~paCr- honorific prefix, used when addressing the Spirits--need not always be translated. parenende the Sky Spirit peña-peña path (lit., .through the forest) pratiçala "the Cousins", wild species related to the Kash (i.e. as gorillas are to humans) pun if, whether racun to help re subordinate clause marker "that.;" also relative clause marker ri general locative prep. rinjura to sing ripa rain rucapus caus. verb, see çapus rukaya caus. verb, see haya rumakram caus. verb, see akram rumele caus. verb; endow, bestow (irreg. deriv. < vele) rumuluñ caus. verb, see vuluñ rungarona caus. verb, see karona rungota caus. verb, to recite (irreg. deriv. < kota) ruN- caus. verb prefix sañ thus saren to lead, guide sisa love supruna "Sister Vuruna", the Spirit of Cindu's larger moon tar- ~tra- negative prefix, "un-" tayanju çelum (idiom) from now on, forward, henceforth tayu this (anim.), taya (inanim.); plural tala (anim.), taç (inanim.) -ti 2nd pers. sing. possessive suffix titanju now, at this time -to ~ -do future tense suffix toye money -tu ~ -du reflexive suffix unjuk to grow (intr.) uritan to be present vacan to trust, believe vakep to join together vele to give, see rumele velu new vingas obstacle; to hinder vuluñ cool vunu direction, course ya- 3rd pers. sing.prefix (subj.) yam with (takes acc.) yanda imperative negative, do not... yu that, it (nom. and acc.), ~the yunda(-yunda) always yuno all, all of... yuno leroç amaraç. (idiom) forever, eternity (lit., all days ages)