Ring B: 1/22: Kash

Roger Mills
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(PART 1)

[titanju mandil yaveleto mesa çendere kendulan re yu memende yarungarona, i çender ya yañurundo ri hendiñ çenderi liya, yarungotato lusok mandilin:]

mam [aran] mandu hate [aran] maçeret alo lerowi tayu tayanju çelum, pun ri anjuçni ambinda iti andulañ, pun ri leroç londo lero londo ripa, kavan kravan, andoye andeçe, i mikasito mifarekto ri vunuweni angayimim velu, yunda-yunda vakep çumesa ri haniyumbim i eningambrim. sañ hate mamepunduñ sisami eçurami ri yuno leroç amaraç.

[i çender liya yameputo yakotato kuwani]

(PART 2)

[titanju yakotato mandil:] ara mihimaçema.

[i yunoni re uritan ikotato iti irinjurato:]

amalero pakrunjanga ri angayini,
parenende yunda praçukakranga,
kinda i çendripa, paracungi re iyunjuk,
supruna, parukayaka ondreçni,
matralap, endo leñ praçufatti lirini,
inderoçe, praçukosanga anju ifosi ri nihindi,
çeñanga, parucapuska lambani, rumulunga katiçni,
ama krahake, nile praveleka amuluñ i lunduñ,
anacangatila, yanda pravingaski peña-peñani,
kendulala mimik mepu sisa, nin praçeretki
hila çehamala eme pratiçala yunohi, nin prasarengi rungaronaki
anju ikasi ifarek ri vunuweni yam amacan yam sisani.
endo sañ, nakayi, endo sañ ri yuno leroç amaraç.

Smooth Translation


(PART 1)

[Now the priest will give a golden chain that he has just blessed, to one of the candidates, and the candidate will place it on the neck of the other candidate, and recite after the priest:]

I [name] bind myself to you [name] from this day forward, whether in times of happiness or sadness, whether in days (full) of sun or rain, in good health or bad, wealth or poverty, and we will set forth on the course of our new life, always bound and united in soul and body. Thus I pledge to you my love and honor forever.

[And the other candidate will do and recite the same]

(PART 2)

[Now the priest will say:] Let us pray to/call upon/ the Spirits

[And everyone in attendance will say or sing:]

Father Sun, shine upon their life,
Sky, be always clear,
Earth and Rain, help them to grow,
Sister Vuruna, illuminate their nights,
Brother Lalap, let your behavior toward them be good,
Mother Sea, be calm when they sail on your surface,
Wind, inflate their sail(s) and cool their faces,
Forest, give them shade and shelter,
Rock Spirits, do not obstruct their path,
Little (golden) chains made of love, bind them,
All you Spirits and Cousins too, guide and bless them
when they set forth on their course with faith and love.
May it be so, verily, may it be so forever.


Note: The style here is very formal and religious in nature. Consequently most nouns and verbs addressed to, or referring to, the Spirits carry the honorific prefix pra-/par- (and sometimes by sandhi pa-Cr-;. pa- before initial /r/)

Word order is basically SVO-S V IO DO; but pronoun objects precede the verb in the reverse order S DO IO V. Adjectives follow nouns, but numbers precede. Possessor follows possessed. In S V sentences, the order may be reversed.

Verbs are marked for tense-present 0, future -to with sandhi (no past tenses here) and in most cases show agreement with the subject in person/number-- Subject prefixes: 1s ma-, 2s ha-, 3s ya-; 1pl mi-, 2pl. hi-, 3pl. i-

There are derived forms--here, the inchoative ('becoming...') and the causative, best illustrated with Engl. 'the door is open (base ~stative); the door opens (inchoative); John opens the door (causative).' Kash caus. forms are usually the transitive counterparts of intrans. stative forms; caus. forms of transitive verbs usually show semantic changes.

Nouns (animate and inanimate) have 4 cases, sing. and plural; declension is regular. Sing. Nom. 0, Genitive -i, Dative -e, Acc.(anim.) -(V)n*, (inan.) 0 Anim. Plur. -(i)la, -(i)li, -(i)le, -(i)lan (the -i- occurs only with C-final bases). Inanim.Plur. Nom., Acc. -(V)ç*-the gen. and dat. endings are added to this.

*in C-final words, this means: copy the pre-final Vowel, e.g. amar, amaraç; but words that end in /-s/ merely change the s to ç.

Kash spelling requires an epenthetic y/w in cases where two vowels would occur in sequence--y after front vowels (and a+front V), w after back vowels (and a+back V), e.g kati 'face' > katiyi (gen.); lero 'day' > lerowi (gen.); kayi 'life' = /kai/.

Pronouns decline somewhat irregularly; their forms are given in the Vocabulary. Personal possession is shown by suffixes. NB the 3d pers. suffix /-ni/ indicates (1) simple possession 'his, her, its; their'; (2) esp. after prepositions, NounA+ni NounB = 'NounA of NounB' (for inanimates/abstracts); (3) definiteness of previously mentioned or understood inanim. antecedents-the demonstratives ya/yu mark definiteness of new material., and of animates.

The general locative preposition /ri/ + dative = motion to/toward, into; /ri/ + acc. = location in/at/on. The meaning is often supplemented with directional/locational words like "inside, top, back of" etc.--these carry the case markings and, usually, the suffix -ni, and the logical object of the prep. is then in the nominative.

Sandhi: When certain consonants come together at a morpheme boundary, various changes affect derived forms, suffixes, and in a few cases, the /-r/ of the honorific prefix:

  1. final nasal + (vl.)fricative > vl.stop at fricative's POA
  2. final nasal + (vd.)fricative > nasal at fricative's POA
  3. final nasal + vl.stop > (homorganic) nasal +voiced stop.
  4. final nasal1 + nasal2 > (homorg.) nasal+vd.stop at POA of nasal2
  5. base-final /r/ metathesizes with a following stop or nasal, becoming

resp. /stop+r/ and /homorganic nasal+stop+r/, while /-r+fricative/ > /stop+r/. 6.Exceptionally, when poss. -ni is added to a nasal-final form, the entire cluster > -ñ-, thus .n+ni, .m+ni, .ñ+ni all > ...ñi

In the romanized script, all symbols have their expected values, except: ç = [S], h = [x], c = [tS], j = [dZ], y = [j], and ñ in final position = velar [N], otherwise palatal. (Note that "ng" = [Ng].) In the Vocabulary, the "N" of the nominal and causative prefix merely indicates a nasal that undergoes sandhi (noml. > ñ before V, caus. > m before V).


akram be clear, see rumakram
alo (prep.) from (takes genitive case)
ama krahake the Spirit of Forests
amacan see vacan
amalero "Father Sun"-the Sun Spirit
ambinda see minda
anacangatila (mischievous) Spirits of Rocks
añ- abstract noun-forming prefix
andeçe see leçe
andoye see toye
andulañ see nulañ
angayi see kayi
anju time, moment; (conj.) when
ara (mi-) hortatory particle, "let us..."
aran name
cetre to marry
-(V)ç inanimate nom/acc. plural suffix
çapus puffed out, inflated
çehama(la) the Spirits of Nature, in Kash belief
çelum back, behind; ri. (prep.) after; see tayanju...
çeñanga the Wind Spirit
çender candidate for religious marriage, i.e. the bride or groom
çendripa the Rain Spirit
çeret to bind (relig.)
cetre to marry
çu(k)- inchoative verb prefix
çufat behavior
çumesa (inchoative, see mesa)
-e dative case suffix
eçura honor
eme also
endo optative particle-'may it be..., let it be...'
endo sañ (formulaic) may/let it be so
eningar the human body
farek to set forth
fosi to sail
hambiya piece;  part, section
haniyu (anim.) soul, mind, consciousness, "inmost being"
hat 2nd pers. sing. pronoun, full/emphatic form; dative hate, te; acc.han
haya light
hendiñ neck
-hi 2nd pers. plural possessive suffix
hila 2nd pers. plural pronoun, emphatic/full form; gen. hili, -hi ~ -ki; 
dat. hile, acc. hin
himaçema to pray to/call upon the Spirits (see also kimaçema)
hunjañ to shine, glow
i and (often omitted)
-i genitive case suffix
i- 3d pers. pl. subj. prefix
-(i)la animate nom. plural suffix (the -i- only occurs after C-final words;
the -a is dropped before the case  endings
inderoçe "Mother Sea", the Sea Spirit
iti (conj.) or (may be omitted)
-ka ~ -ga  imperative marker (sing.)
karona holy, blessed
kasi to begin
kati the face
kavan healthy ~good health (see also kravan)
kayi to live, be alive
kendula (anim.) small gold chain, the sign of a relig. marriage
-ki ~ -gi imperative marker (plur.)
kinda the Earth Spirit
kimaçema (n., irreg.) a prayer to the Spirits
kota to say (see rungota)
kravan not healthy ~poor health
kuwa  same, equal
lamba large sheet of cloth; sail(s) of a  ship
leçe  poor
leñ  (be) good
1. lero (inanim.) day
2. lero (anim.) sun
liri (prep.) toward,  with respect to, concerning
liya (the) other, another
londo full (of)
lunduñ shelter
lusok to follow
ma- 1st pers. subj. prefix
mandil priest, monk
mam 1st pers. sing. pronoun, full/emphatic form; dative mame, me, acc. man
matralap "Brother Lalap", the Spirit (mischievous, drunken) of Lalap, Cindu's 
lesser moon
memende to have just...
mepu to do, to make, to act; (as adj.) made of.
mepunduñ to make an oath, to pledge
mesa one
mi-  1st pers. plural subj. prefix
-mi 1st pers. sing. possessive suffix
-mim 1st pers. plural possessive suffix
mimik small
minda be happy, smile
nakayi yes (emphatic form)
-(V)n anim. accusative case suffix
-ni 3rd pers. sing/pl. possessive suffix--and other uses
nihin top, top suface
nila (anim.) they, those; gen. nili, dat. nile, acc. nin
nulañ  be sad
ñurun to put, place
olama religious ceremony, rite
ondre night
osan calm, serene
par- ~pra- ~paCr- honorific prefix, used  when addressing the Spirits--need 
not always be translated.
parenende the Sky Spirit
peña-peña path (lit., .through the  forest)
pratiçala "the Cousins", wild species related to the Kash (i.e. as gorillas 
are to humans)
pun if, whether
racun to help
re subordinate clause marker "that.;" also relative clause marker
ri general locative prep.
rinjura to sing
ripa rain
rucapus caus. verb, see çapus
rukaya caus. verb, see haya
rumakram caus. verb, see akram
rumele caus. verb; endow, bestow (irreg. deriv. < vele)
rumuluñ caus. verb, see vuluñ
rungarona caus. verb, see karona
rungota caus. verb, to recite (irreg. deriv. < kota)
ruN- caus. verb prefix
sañ  thus
saren to lead, guide
sisa love
supruna "Sister Vuruna", the Spirit of  Cindu's larger moon
tar- ~tra- negative prefix, "un-"
tayanju çelum (idiom) from now on, forward, henceforth
tayu this (anim.), taya (inanim.); plural tala (anim.), taç (inanim.)
-ti 2nd pers. sing. possessive suffix
titanju now, at this time
-to ~ -do  future tense suffix
toye  money
-tu ~ -du reflexive suffix
unjuk to grow (intr.)
uritan to be present
vacan to trust, believe
vakep to join together
vele to give, see rumele
velu new
vingas obstacle; to hinder
vuluñ  cool
vunu direction, course
ya- 3rd pers. sing.prefix (subj.)
yam with (takes acc.)
yanda imperative negative, do not...
yu that, it (nom. and acc.), ~the
yunda(-yunda)  always
yuno all, all of...
yuno leroç amaraç. (idiom) forever, eternity (lit., all days ages)

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February 19th, 2007
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