Ring B: 2/22: Þrjótrunn

Henrik Theiling
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[ Þrjótrunn | Smooth English | Grammar | Vocabulary | Abbrevs. ]

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Þrjótrunn

Séttjó á rít nyptur

(Pars ú)

Hákur deð saktars spósas eyriköllrirsu tög hef þuð bindétt úst etti, eð spóssis mitt þissuð spæsinis sve, eð þiss rékið kvæsig:]

Já, Mörkur, ligust á höði að té, Mer, í þélk eð tríst tjöppri, í sól eð plý, sánur eð jögrur, ríkur eð peypir, eð hefja kyrrir uttur kú ún sól spírt eð ún sól korpur. Já úra að dönn tif ömur mjú eð honur mjú hákur eð itinmett.

Eð spæsinsa dík jöklur þissi:

Já, Mer, ligust á höði að té, Mörk, í þélk eð tríst tjöppri, í sól eð plý, sán eð jagur, rík eð peypir, eð hefja kyrrir uttur kú ún sól spírt eð ún sól korpur. Já úra að dönn tif ömur mjú eð honur mjú hákur eð itinmett.

(Pars dve)

Hákur dík saktars:

Prökmur nær!

Eð onnir pjörni prestir prekið autt kattið kvæsig:

Ör, erttu seppir klárr,
Þæfur, splintu í véttsa,
Ólnur, ípittu né vjá þissur,
Kirir, eittu þissa kréskir,
Dján, splintu að nótt,
Njöpnur, erttu trökill kvanda þissa nægað í supirþik tvo,
Olur, íflátu vélsa, réþrígtu últarsar þissur,
Þaunn, dátu þissir umbur eð prótíttjun,
Þortun, erttu bon þissir,
Ænn í eyriköllrirsu ömurrsir, kúlegtu þissa,
Álfi eð ýltipopull, kúdýkt ær þissa að issinn bindétt,
kvanda þissa kúittað að uttur kyrrinn kú ömur eð kúþínt.
Kvæsig sjá þissuð hákur eð itinmett.

Smooth Translation

Section from a Wedding Ceremony

(Part One)

Now the priest shall give the groom the golden ring which shall just have been blessed, and the groom puts it on his bride, and he shall recite thusly:

I, Marcus, bind myself from this day forward to you, Mary, in happy and sad times, in sun and rain, healthy and ill, rich and poor, and will walk together with one single spirit and one single body. I swear to give you my love and my honour, now and in eternity.

And the bride will say the same to him:

I, Mary, bind myself from this day forward to you, Marcus, in happy and sad times, in sun and rain, healthy and ill, rich and poor, and will walk together with one single spirit and one single body. I swear to give you my love and my honour, now and in eternity.

(Part Two)

Now the priest shall say:

Let us pray!

And all present people with pray or sing thusly:

Jupiter, be always clear,
Phoebus, shine in life,
Vulcanus, do not hinder their way,
Ceres, help them grow,
Diana, shine at night,
Neptune, be calm when they sail upon thy surface,
Aeolus, inflate the sails, refresh their faces,
Faunus, give them shadow and protection,
Fortuna, be good to them,
Venus in the golden necklace of love, bind them together,
Elves and small people, lead them to be blessed,
when they begin to walk together with love and trust.
So be it now and eternally.

Grammar

Þrjótrunn is a Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin. The syntax and phonology are mainly Icelandic.

This means:

Word Order

In normal phrases, the verb phrase comes second. Exactly one of the other phrases precedes it, most often the subject (in which case we get SVO order) and often an adverbial. All other phrases are behind the verb.

Examples of V2 word order:

Mary loves John all the time
Subject Verb Others....
1. 2. ....
All the time loves Mary John
Adverbial Verb Others....
1. 2. ...

If the word order is not V2 but V1 (=VSO), the phrase expresses something special. It might be:

More things may be expressed by this, but they are not important here.

Case

In a normal sentence, nominative, accusative and dative are used for subject, object and indirect object, resp. The genitive expresses a possession or modification of the preceding noun phrase.

Prepositions select either accusative or genitive case. The lexicon lists which of the two.

Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctiv mood can express:

More things may be expressed by this, but they are not important here.

Composite Verb Forms

The following composite verb forms exist:

future tense -> 'hefir' + infinitive
preterite tense -> 'issir' or 'hefir' + participle perfect
passive voice -> 'issir' + participle perfect

Only intransitive verbs may form the preterite tense with 'issir', so there is no ambiguity between preterite tense and passive voice.

The participle inflects for object's or subject's gender, number, and case: the subject's for intransitive verbs, the object's for transitive verbs (this is a simplification, but that's ok).

More composite forms exist, but they are not important here.

Article

There is no indefinite article.

The definite article is suffixed to its noun. It is inflected by gender, number, and case of the noun:

        f.       m.       n.
sg.nom. -sa      -(i)s    -su
   acc. -sa      -su      -su
   dat. -(i)s    -(i)s    -(i)s
   gen. -sir     -sir     -sir
pl.nom. -si      -si      -sa
   acc. -sar     -sar     -sa
   dat. -sir     -sir     -sir
   gen. -sur     -sur     -sur

In this table, -(i)- means that -i- drops after r, l, n and after vowels.

Further, in pl.dat., -fur + -sir > -ssir.

Imperative

The imperative verb form is always accompanied by the second person pronoun.

In singular, instead of using 'tú' as an independent word, -'tu' is suffixed to the plain imperative form. Same consonant changes occur:

+ -tu > -ttu
-nd + -tu > -ntu

In plural, the normal personal pronoun 'ær' is used.

Vocabulary

Order: A Á B C D E É ... U Ú V W X Y Z Þ Æ Ö

For inflected categories, the base forms are:

sg.nom. for n.
m.sg.nom. for adj. and pron.
inf.pres.act. for v.
að nótt adv. at night
prep.acc. at
autt conj. or
álfi n.m. pl.nom. of 'álfur'
álfur n.m. elf, goblin
á prep.acc. from
bindétt v. part.perf.n.sg.acc. of 'bindíkir'
bindíkir v. to bless
bon adj. f.sg.nom. of 'bonn'
bonn adj. good
dar v. to give
v. imp.act.sg. of 'dar'
deð v. act.pres.subj.sg.3. of 'dar'
díkir v. to say
dík v. act.pres.subj.sg.3. of 'díkir'
Dján n.prop.f. Diana (Moon Goddess)
adj.num. two
dve adj.num. f.pl.nom. of 'dú'
dönn v. ger.acc. of 'dar'
conj. and
eit v. imp.act.sg. of 'eitir'
eitir v. to help
ert v.intr. imp.act.sg. of 'issir'
eyrikollrir (1) n.n. golden necklace
eyriköllrir (2) n.n. sg.acc. of 'eyrikollrir'
haft v. act.pres.ind.sg.3. of 'hefir'
hákur adv. now
hefir v. have (auxiliary)
hefja v. act.pres.ind.sg.1. of 'hefir'
hef v. act.pres.subj.sg.3. of 'hefir'
honur (1) n.m. honour
honur (2) n.m. sg.acc. of 'honur'
höði adv. today
issinn v.intr. ger.acc. of 'issir'
issir v.intr. to be
itinmett adv. eternally
íflá v. imp.act.sg. of 'íflár'
íflár v. to inflate
ípið v. imp.act.sg. of 'ípiðir'
ípiðir v. to hinder
í prep.acc. in
jagur adj. f.sg.nom. of 'jögrur'
pron.pers.1. I
jögrur adj. ill
jöklur (1) adj. same
jöklur (2) adj. n.sg.acc. of 'jöklur'
kattið v. act.pres.subj.pl.3. of 'kattir'
kattir v. to sing
Kirir n.prop.f. Ceres (Harvest Goddess)
klárr adj. clear
korpur (1) n.n. body
korpur (2) n.n. sg.acc. of 'korpur'
kréskir v. to grow
kúdýkir v. to lead, to guide
kúdýkt v. imp.act.pl. of 'kúdýkir'
kúittað v. act.pres.ind.pl.3. of 'kúittir'
kúittir v. to begin
kúleg v. imp.act.sg. of 'kúlegir'
kúlegir v. to bind together
prep.acc. with
kúþínt (1) n. trust
kúþínt (2) n. sg.acc. of 'kúþínt'
kvanda conj. when
kvæsig adv. so
kyrrinn v. ger.acc. of 'kyrrir'
kyrrir v. go
legir v. to bind
ligust v. med.pres.ind.sg.1. of 'legir'
Mer (1) n.prop.f. Mary (some arbitrary name)
Mer (2) n.prop.f. sg.acc. of 'Mer'
mittir v. to don, to put on, to put
mitt v. act.pres.subj.sg.3. of 'mittir'
mjú pron.poss. m.sg.acc. of 'myr'
myr pron.poss. my
Mörk n.prop.m. sg.acc. of 'Mörkur'
Mörkur n.prop.m. Markus (some arbitrary name)
adv. not
Njöpnur n.prop.m. Neptune (God)
nypti n.f.pl. wedding
nyptur n.f.pl. pl.gen. of 'nypti'
nægað v. act.pres.ind.pl.3. of 'nægir'
nægir v. to sail
nær pron.pers.1. we
Olur n.prop.m. Aeolus (God)
onnir adj. fm.pl.nom. of 'öður'
Ólnur n.prop.m. Vulcanus (God)
pars n.f. part
peypir adj. poor
pjörni n.f. pl.nom. of 'pjörn'
pjörn n.f. person
plý (1) n.f. rain
plý (2) n.f. sg.acc. of 'plý'
prekið v. act.pres.subj.pl.3. of 'prekir'
prekir v. to pray
prestir adj. fm.pl.nom. of 'prestur'
prestur adj. present
prótétta n. protection
prótíttjun n. sg.acc. of 'prótétta'
prökmur v. act.pres.ind.pl.1. of 'prekir'
rékið v. act.pres.subj.sg.3. of 'rékitir'
rékitir v. to recite
réþríg v. imp.act.sg. of 'réþrígir'
réþrígir v. to chill, to cool
rík adj. f.sg.nom. of 'ríkur'
ríkur adj. rich
rít n.m. sg.acc. of 'rítur'
rítur n.m. rite
saktar n.m. priest
sán adj. f.sg.nom. of 'sánur'
sánur adj. healthy
seppir adv. always
séttjó n.f. section
sjá v.intr. act.pres.subj.sg.3. of 'issir'
sól (1) adj. m.sg.acc. of 'sóll'
sól (2) n.m. sun
sól (3) n.m. sg.acc. of 'sól'
sóll adj. single
spírt n.m. sg.acc. of 'spírtur'
spírtur n.m. spirit
splind v. imp.act.sg. of 'splindir'
splindir v. to shine
spósa n.m. sg.dat. of 'spóss'
spóss n.m. bridegroom
spæsini n.f. sg.dat. of 'spæsin'
spæsin n.f. bride
supirþikir n.f. surface
supirþik n.f. sg.acc. of 'supirþikir'
sve pron.poss.refl. f.sg.dat. of 'sýr'
sýr pron.poss.refl. oneself's
pron.pers.2. sg.acc. of 'tú'
tif pron.pers.2. sg.dat. of 'tú'
tjöppri n.n. pl.acc. of 'tjöppur'
tjöppur n.n. time
tríst adj. n.pl.acc. of 'trístur'
trístur adj. sad
trökill adj. calm
pron.pers.2. thou, you (sg.)
tvo pron.poss. f.sg.acc. of 'týr'
týr pron.poss. thy
tög pron.rel. uninflected relative pronoun
umbur (1) n.f. shadow
umbur (2) n.f. sg.acc. of 'umbur'
uttur adv. together
ú adj.num.sg. f.sg.nom. of 'únn'
últar n.m. pl.acc. of 'últur'
últur n.m. face
ún adj.num.sg. m.sg.acc. of 'únn'
únn adj.num.sg. one
úra v.intr. act.pres.ind.sg.1. of 'úrir'
úrir v.intr. to swear
úst etti adv. just now
vél n.n. pl.acc. of 'æl'
vétt (1) n.f. life
vétt (2) n.f. sg.acc. of 'vétt'
vjá (1) n.f. way
vjá (2) n.f. sg.acc. of 'vjá'
ýltipopull n.m. hidden folks
Þaunn n.prop.m. Faunus (God)
þélk adj. n.pl.acc. of 'þélkur'
þélkur adj. happy
þissa (1) pron.pers.3. n.pl.acc. of 'þiss'
þissa (2) pron.pers.3. n.pl.nom. of 'þiss'
þissi pron.pers.3. m.sg.dat. of 'þiss'
þissir pron.pers.3. n.pl.dat. of 'þiss'
þiss pron.pers.3. he; she; it; they
þissuð (1) pron.pers.3. n.sg.acc. of 'þiss'
þissuð (2) pron.pers.3. n.sg.nom. of 'þiss'
þissur pron.pers.3. n.pl.gen. of 'þiss'
Þortun n.prop.f. Fortuna (Goddess)
þuð v.intr. part.perf.n.sg.acc. of 'issir'
Þæfur n.prop.m. Phoebus (God)
æl n.n. sail
Ænn n.prop.f. Venus (Goddess)
ær pron.pers.2. you (pl.)
öður adj. every
ömur (1) n.m. love
ömur (2) n.m. sg.acc. of 'ömur'
ömurr n.m. sg.gen. of 'ömur'
Ör n.prop.m. Jupiter (God)

Abbreviations

1. first person
2. second person
3. thirs person
acc. accusative case
act. active voice
adj. adjective
adv. adverb
conj. conjunction
dat. dative case
def. definite
f. feminine
fm. feminine or masculine
gen. genitive case
ger. gerund
imp. imperative
ind. indicative mood
inf. infinitive
intr. intransitive
m. masculine
med. middle voice
n. neuter
nom. nominative case
num. numeral
part. participle
perf. perfect tense
pers. personal (for pronouns)
pl. plural
poss. possessive
prep. preposition
pres. present tense
pron. pronoun
prop. proper (for nouns)
refl. reflexive
rel. relative
sg. singular
subj. subjunctive mood
tr. transitive
v. verb

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Index

February 19th, 2007
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