Ring C: 5/8: Ayeri
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Edauyi le iliya natrayonang tipalon eavirang si etorayisu, kanāyonyam. Yam tapiaiya miday kanāyonang tipalley kananvanyam nay naraiya kunasyara:
"Nay davano ang ikapāyin, Kayān, sitangayaris evaea, Tyanisay, nay palayea nay gidayea evaena, makapranea nay seyaranea evaena, sapinea nay banyanea evaena, idyānea nay anganea evaena, nay pebukāyang na mitanayang kayvoea evain, tenaneri-ikan nay bituayeri-ikan ayena. Edauyi nay mangasara pangoyea yam setyāyang nay seilayang tiganaris evain."
Nay naraiye kamo kananvanang:
"Nay davano ang ikapāyin, Tyanisay, sitangayaris evaea, Kayān, nay palayea nay gidayea evaena, makapranea nay seyaranea evaena, sapinea nay banyanea evaena, idyānea nay anganea evaena, nay pebukāyang na mitanayang kayvoea evain, tenaneri-ikan nay bituayeri-ikan ayena. Edauyi nay mangasara pangoyea yam setyāyang nay seilayang tiganaris evain."
Edauyi naraiya natrayonang: "Pinyan, natru." Nay kada natraiyan soyang malīyan sano:
"Mea nutaboy tadayen lenoaris!
Yomu adanyaley adāre edauyi nay mangasara pangoyea!"
At the wedding rite
Now gives the priest the golden necklace that is blessed to the bridegroom. The bridegroom puts the bride the necklace on and speaks as follows:
"And today, I, Mark, bind myself to you, Mary, and your joy and sadness, your sunshine and rain, your health and disease, your wealth and poverty, and I promise that I will live by your side with all my soul and all my body. Now and in eternity I will love you and give you honour."
And the bride speaks the same:
"And today, I, Mary, bind myself to you, Mark, and your joy and sadness, your sunshine and rain, your health and disease, your wealth and poverty, and I promise that I will live by your side with all my soul and all my body. Now and in eternity I will love you and give you honour."
Now speaks the priest: "Please pray." And thus pray or sing both of them:
"The sun shall shine over our life!
Dikang-ea kanān -ena rite .LOC wedding.GEN (Menan nernan-ye-ena) First part .PL.GEN Edauyi le il -iya natrayon-ang tipal -on e- avirang Now TRG:PAT.inan give.3sg:M priest .AGT necklace.TRG:inan PAT:inan.golden si Ø e- toray-isu, kanāyon -yam. REL [is] PAT:inan.bless.CAU bridegroom.BEN. Yam tapia -iya miday kanāyon -ang tipal -ley kananvan-yam nay TRG:BEN put .3sg:M around bridegroom.AGT necklace.PAT bride .BEN and nara -iya ku- nasy -ara: speak.3s:M like-follow.3sg:inan "Nay davano ang ikapa -ay -in, Kayān, sitang-ay -aris eva-ea, Tyanisay, And today TRG:AGT attach.1sg.TRG Mark self .1sg.PAT 2sg.LOC Mary nay palay-ea nay giday -ea eva-ena, makapran-ea nay seyaran-ea eva-ena, and joy .LOC and sadness.LOC 2sg.GEN sunshine.LOC and rain .LOC 2sg.GEN sapin -ea nay banyan -ea eva-ena, idyān -ea nay angan -ea eva-ena, health.LOC and disease.LOC 2sg.GEN wealth.LOC and poverty.LOC 2sg.GEN nay pebuka -ay -ang na mitan -ay -ang kayvo-ea eva-in, and promise.2sg.AGT TRG:GEN live-at.1sg.AGT side .LOC 2sg.GEN tenan-eri=ikan nay bituay-eri=ikan ay-ena. soul .INS.complete and body .INS.complete 1s.GEN Edauyi nay mangasara pangoy -ea yam se- tya -ay -ang nay se- il -ay -ang Now and towards eternity.LOC TRG:BEN FUT.love.1sg.AGT and FUT.give.1sg.AGT tigan -aris eva-in." honour.PAT 2sg.TRG Nay nara -iye kamo kananvan-ang: and speak.3sg:F same bride .AGT "Nay davano ang ikapa -ay -in, Tyanisay, sitang-ay -aris eva-ea, Kayān, And today TRG:AGT attach.1sg.TRG Mary self. 1sg.PAT 2sg.LOC Mark nay palay-ea nay giday -ea eva-ena, makapran-ea nay seyaran-ea eva-ena, and joy .LOC and sadness.LOC 2sg.GEN sunshine.LOC and rain .LOC 2sg.GEN sapin -ea nay banyan -ea eva-ena, idyān -ea nay angan -ea eva-ena, health.LOC and disease.LOC 2sg.GEN wealth.LOC and poverty.LOC 2sg.GEN nay pebuka -ay -ang na mitan -ay -ang kayvo-ea eva-in, and promise.2sg.AGT TRG:GEN live-at.1sg.AGT side .LOC 2sg.GEN tenan-eri=ikan nay bituay-eri=ikan ay-ena. soul .INS.complete and body .INS.complete 1s.GEN Edauyi nay mangasara pangoy -ea yam se- tya -ay -ang nay se- il -ay -ang Now and towards eternity.LOC TRG:BEN FUT.love.1sg.AGT and FUT.give.1sg.AGT tigan -aris eva-in." honour.PAT 2sg.TRG (Saman nernan-ye.ena) Second part .PL.GEN Edauyi nara -iya natrayon-ang: "Pinyan, natr-u." Now speak.3sg:M priest .AGT Please pray.IMP Nay kada natra-iyan soyang mali-iyan sano: And so pray .3pl:M or sing.3pl:M both "Mea Ø nu- taboy tadayen leno-aris! Shall [be] AGT.clear always sky .PAT Ang mea maka -iyo perin-in eyrarya ten -ea ayn-ena! TRG:AGT shall shine.3sg:N sun .TRG over life.LOC 1pl.GEN Ang mea hampang-oy -iyan nerumaya -ye-in ayn-aris sasano-ea ayn-ena! TRG:AGT shall hinder .NEG.3pl:M adversary.PL.TRG 1pl.PAT way .LOC 1pl.GEN Ang mea nel -iyo areka-in ayn-aris nakas-isa-yam nihan-ye-aris! TRG:AGT shall help.3sg:N earth.TRG 1pl.PAT grow .CAU.BEN fruit.PL.PAT Ang mea maka -iyo kolun-in ayn-yam sirutay-ea! TRG:AGT shall shine.3sg:N moon .TRG 1pl.BEN night .LOC Mea Ø nu- taran karon-ang sitadayea ang tengap-ayn-in marin -ea Shall [be] AGT.quiet sea .AGT when TRG:AGT sail .1pl.TRG surface.LOC iyo -ena! 3sg:N.GEN Ang mea giha-iyo pin -in kong behadang-ye-ea ayn-ena nay TRG:AGT shall blow.3sg:N wind.TRG inside_of sail .PL.LOC 1pl.GEN and sira mea hiro -isa-iyo -ang marin-ye-in ayn-ena! TRG:PAT shall fresh.CAU.3sg:N.AGT face .PL.TRG 1pl.GEN Ang mea maka -iyo tampu-in ling ayn-ea! TRG:AGT shall shine.3sg:N luck .TRG onto 1pl.LOC Ang mea kayv -iyo siru-in tibeno-ena tipalatyān -aris TRG:AGT shall accompany.3sg:N star.TRG dusk .GEN necklace_of_love.PAT a- avirang ayn-ena! PAT.golden 1pl.GEN Ang mea lant-iyan Pangal-ye-in nay Lomāya -ye-in nu- silvaya -ye TRG:AGT shall lead.3pl:M god .PL.TRG and servant.PL.TRG AGT.invisible.PL iyat -ena ayn-aris sasano-ea ayn-ena tigan -eri nay paronān -eri! 3pl:M.GEN 1pl.PAT way .LOC 1pl.GEN honour.INS nay conficence.INS Yom-u adanya -ley adāre edauyi nay mangasara pangoy -ea!" Be .IMP that_one.PAT:inan that_way now and towards eternity.LOC
(see http://www.beckerscarsten.de/?conlang=ayeri for more detailed information)
Ayeri is a typical agglutinating language. There is a plethora of suffixes, but also a couple of prefixes. Also, Ayeri is some kind of a trigger language, that is, all arguments can be made subjects, not just the direct object.
The noun morphology is quite easy in Ayeri. Nouns are not declined in that the stem changes, but case suffixes are attached usually:
Role | clitic form || free form or +---------------------++---------+----------- Case | animate | inanimate || animate | inanimate -----+---------+-----------++---------+----------- AGT | -ang | -reng || ang | eng PAT | -aris | -ley || sira | le -----+---------+-----------++---------+----------- BEN | -yam || yam GEN | -ena || (e)na LOC | -ea || ya -----+---------------------++--------------------- INS | -eri || (e)ri CAU | -isa || isa
The causative isn't used very often anymore. The free case markers are only used before proper names and to mark the role of the triggered argument on the verb.
|AGT:||The performer of an action.|
|PAT: The one immediately affected by an action (direct object). Is also used to mark the thing given.|
|BEN: The receiver of an object (indirect object)|
|GEN: The owner of something, also indicates the origin of something. Works like in English and German.|
|LOC: Indicates a place. Can also be translated with "at" or "in" if no other preposition is present.|
|INS: Indicates the means by which an action is performed.|
|CAU: The cause of something. Can also be translated as "On X's behalf"|
A relative clause is formed in that either the descriptive NP follows immediately after the described NP, being introduced by the relative pronoun "si", or by placing it at the end of the sentence or wherever else in that the descriptive NP is introduced by the relative pronoun "si", which is then marked for the case of the head of the NP it describes.
The plural marker is "-ye".
There is no definite article as such, nouns are definite by default. Indefiniteness is marked as follows:
Verbs are conjugated for the following things in this order:
- role of the triggered argument
- personal agreement with the agent or patient (see below)
- case of the personal agreement (see below)
The last three categories are optional and are only used when needed.
The Trigger: As said above, the trigger morpheme (-in for animates, -on for inanimates) is used to focus on an argument. It is always the head of the NP that is marked. The original case marker of the argument is drawn in front of the verb stem and is seen as an independent (function) word, so the free form is used.
- remote past: ka- - past: ma- - near past: va- - remote future: pa- - future: se- - near future: ni-
The present is not marked.
Moods ("°" means that the vowel of the verb is dropped when it ends in one):
- infinitive: unmarked, the quotation form ends in -ao.
- imperative: -°u
- subjunctive: -°ong
- habitative: -°asa
- conditional: bata ... (free morpheme, comes even before the TRG marker)
- consequence: kada ... ( ditto )
Person | animate | inanimate -------+---------+----------- 1sg | -ay | 2sg | -eva | _ 3sg:M | -iya | \ 3sg:F | -iye | }- -ara 3sg:N | -iyo | _/ -------+---------+----------- 1pl | -ayn | 2pl | -va | _ 3pl:M | -iyan | \ 3pl:F | -iyen | }- -aran 3pl:N | -iyon | _/
The agentive personal pronouns are bound morphemes that are attached directly to verbs as described above. If the agent is absent from the sentence, the verb may be marked immediately for the patient instead. Other than that, the pronouns listed above are free morphemes which must be marked for their respective case when they're used as proper NPs.
When a vowel follows, the "-n" of the third person plural pronouns changes into "-t-".
There are a couple of modal verbs, among them for example meāo (shall). These verbs are not conjugated, but instead, their complements are. This works just the other way round as in English, where the auxiliary verb is conjugated, but not its complement, the "main verb" (Hauptverb in German).
Furthermore, to form some kind of participle, the benefactive suffix "-yam" is attached to the verb stem. These participles behave very similar to verbal nouns in that they are not conjugated, but they're also unable to take nominal morphology. They also can't be triggered. Mostly, what follows is a patient. This construction can also be used to express "for Xing" and "(in order) to X". When used as a modal verb, again the complement is conjugated.
Passives are formed in that the patient is triggered. Other than that, quasi-passive statives (like "opened") can be formed by attaching the causative ending "-isa" to the verb stem. This derivation method can also be used to form "make sth X" constructions.
The verb "yomāo" (to be, to exist) is always dropped, except when marked for mood.
Adjectives and adverbs
Adjectives agree with their head nouns in case and animacy:
| animate | inanimate ----+---------+----------- AGT | nu- | nu- PAT | a- | e- OBL | ay- | ey-
They also agree in number. The plural marker is "-ye".
Although adjectives have nominal agreement, they always follow their heads, i.e. you cannot place them anywhere in the sentence you like.
Adverbs don't agree with anything at all, so they necessarily need to follow their heads. Temporal adverbs and adverbs of manner can go anywhere in the sentence, but preferrably to the beginning or the end.
- Ayeri is head-first (i.e. left-branching), except for compounds and adpositions, which are usually right-branching.
- The preferred word order is VSO (VAP), although there is strict case marking, at least in written language.
- There are *pre*positions, which require their head to be marked for locative case (of course).
- Prescriptivists fight hard against each other whether one should use the AGT or the PAT when there is an NP following a dropped "to be". The fact is, people use both constructions.
- Genitive pronouns follow their head-NP as well.
Long vowels are often due to two morphemes colliding, e.g. a + a = ā. This can also be due to derivation, like in "kanān" (wedding), which is derived from kana- (to wed) plus -an (nominalizer).
|banyan||illness, disease, sickness|
|-ikan||all, much, very|
|kada||hence, so, thus|
|karon||sea, ocean, water|
|kong||in, into, inside of|
|lantao||to guide, to lead|
|ling||on, onto, up, upon, top of|
|mangasara||indicates motion away from the speaker to somewhere else|
|mitanao||to dwell, to live (somewhere)|
|narāo||to speak, to say|
|si||which, what, who, that, ...|
|tapiao miday||to put on (lit. "to put around")|
|yomāo||to be, to exist|
(The abbreviations follow mostly the Leipzig Glossing Rules, http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/files/morpheme.html)
|1SG||1st person singular|
|2DU||2nd person dual|
|3PL||3rd person plual|
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