Ring C: 5/8: Ayeri

Carsten Becker
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[ Ayeri | Smooth English | Interlinear | Grammar | Vocabulary | Abbrevs. ]

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Ayeri

Dikangea kanānena

(Menan nernanyēna)

Edauyi le iliya natrayonang tipalon eavirang si etorayisu, kanāyonyam. Yam tapiaiya miday kanāyonang tipalley kananvanyam nay naraiya kunasyara:

"Nay davano ang ikapāyin, Kayān, sitangayaris evaea, Tyanisay, nay palayea nay gidayea evaena, makapranea nay seyaranea evaena, sapinea nay banyanea evaena, idyānea nay anganea evaena, nay pebukāyang na mitanayang kayvoea evain, tenaneri-ikan nay bituayeri-ikan ayena. Edauyi nay mangasara pangoyea yam setyāyang nay seilayang tiganaris evain."

Nay naraiye kamo kananvanang:

"Nay davano ang ikapāyin, Tyanisay, sitangayaris evaea, Kayān, nay palayea nay gidayea evaena, makapranea nay seyaranea evaena, sapinea nay banyanea evaena, idyānea nay anganea evaena, nay pebukāyang na mitanayang kayvoea evain, tenaneri-ikan nay bituayeri-ikan ayena. Edauyi nay mangasara pangoyea yam setyāyang nay seilayang tiganaris evain."

(Saman nernanyēna)

Edauyi naraiya natrayonang: "Pinyan, natru." Nay kada natraiyan soyang malīyan sano:

"Mea nutaboy tadayen lenoaris!
Ang mea makaiyo perinin eyrarya tenea aynena!
Ang mea hampangoyiyan nerumayayein aynaris sasanoea aynena!
Ang mea neliyo arekain aynaris nakasisayam nihanyearis!
Ang mea makaiyo kolunin aynyam sirutayea!
Mea nutaran karonang sitadayea ang tengapaynin marinea iyoena!
Ang mea gihaiyo pinin kong behadangyēa aynena nay
sira mea hiroisaiyoang marinyein aynena!
Ang mea makaiyo tampuin ling aynea!
Ang mea kayviyo siruin tibenoena tipalatyānaris
āvirang aynena!
Ang mea lantiyan Pangalyein nay Lomāyayein nusilvayaye
iyatena aynaris sasanoea aynena tiganeri nay paronāneri!

Yomu adanyaley adāre edauyi nay mangasara pangoyea!"

Smooth Translation

At the wedding rite

(Part one)

Now gives the priest the golden necklace that is blessed to the bridegroom. The bridegroom puts the bride the necklace on and speaks as follows:

"And today, I, Mark, bind myself to you, Mary, and your joy and sadness, your sunshine and rain, your health and disease, your wealth and poverty, and I promise that I will live by your side with all my soul and all my body. Now and in eternity I will love you and give you honour."

And the bride speaks the same:

"And today, I, Mary, bind myself to you, Mark, and your joy and sadness, your sunshine and rain, your health and disease, your wealth and poverty, and I promise that I will live by your side with all my soul and all my body. Now and in eternity I will love you and give you honour."

(Part two)

Now speaks the priest: "Please pray." And thus pray or sing both of them:

"The sun shall shine over our life!
Adversaries shall not hinder us on our way!
The earth shall help us growing fruits!
The moon shall shine for us at night!
The sea shall be quiet when we sail its surface!
The wind shall blow into our sails and freshen our faces!
The luck shall shine upon us!
The star of dawn shall accompany our golden necklace of love!
The gods and their invisible servants shall
lead us on our way with honour and confidence!
So be it now and in eternity!"

Interlinear

Dikang-ea  kanān  -ena
rite  .LOC wedding.GEN

(Menan nernan-ye-ena)
 First part  .PL.GEN

Edauyi le           il  -iya   natrayon-ang tipal   -on       e-       avirang
Now    TRG:PAT.inan give.3sg:M priest  .AGT necklace.TRG:inan PAT:inan.golden

si  Ø    e-       toray-isu, kanāyon   -yam.
REL [is] PAT:inan.bless.CAU  bridegroom.BEN.

Yam     tapia -iya   miday  kanāyon   -ang tipal   -ley kananvan-yam nay
TRG:BEN put   .3sg:M around bridegroom.AGT necklace.PAT bride   .BEN and

nara -iya  ku-  nasy  -ara:
speak.3s:M like-follow.3sg:inan

"Nay davano ang     ikapa -ay -in, Kayān, sitang-ay -aris  eva-ea, Tyanisay,
 And today  TRG:AGT attach.1sg.TRG Mark   self  .1sg.PAT   2sg.LOC Mary

nay palay-ea  nay giday  -ea  eva-ena, makapran-ea  nay seyaran-ea  eva-ena,
and joy  .LOC and sadness.LOC 2sg.GEN  sunshine.LOC and rain   .LOC 2sg.GEN

sapin -ea  nay banyan -ea  eva-ena, idyān -ea  nay angan  -ea  eva-ena,
health.LOC and disease.LOC 2sg.GEN  wealth.LOC and poverty.LOC 2sg.GEN

nay pebuka -ay -ang na      mitan  -ay -ang kayvo-ea  eva-in,
and promise.2sg.AGT TRG:GEN live-at.1sg.AGT side .LOC 2sg.GEN

tenan-eri=ikan     nay bituay-eri=ikan     ay-ena.
soul .INS.complete and body  .INS.complete 1s.GEN

Edauyi nay mangasara pangoy  -ea  yam     se- tya -ay -ang nay se- il  -ay -ang
Now    and towards   eternity.LOC TRG:BEN FUT.love.1sg.AGT and FUT.give.1sg.AGT

tigan -aris eva-in."
honour.PAT  2sg.TRG

Nay nara -iye   kamo kananvan-ang:
and speak.3sg:F same bride   .AGT

"Nay davano ang     ikapa -ay -in, Tyanisay, sitang-ay -aris eva-ea, Kayān,
 And today  TRG:AGT attach.1sg.TRG Mary      self.  1sg.PAT  2sg.LOC Mark

nay palay-ea  nay giday  -ea  eva-ena, makapran-ea  nay seyaran-ea  eva-ena,
and joy  .LOC and sadness.LOC 2sg.GEN  sunshine.LOC and rain   .LOC 2sg.GEN

sapin -ea  nay banyan -ea  eva-ena, idyān -ea  nay angan  -ea  eva-ena,
health.LOC and disease.LOC 2sg.GEN  wealth.LOC and poverty.LOC 2sg.GEN

nay pebuka -ay -ang na      mitan  -ay -ang kayvo-ea  eva-in,
and promise.2sg.AGT TRG:GEN live-at.1sg.AGT side .LOC 2sg.GEN

tenan-eri=ikan     nay bituay-eri=ikan     ay-ena.
soul .INS.complete and body  .INS.complete 1s.GEN

Edauyi nay mangasara pangoy  -ea  yam     se- tya -ay -ang nay se- il  -ay -ang
Now    and towards   eternity.LOC TRG:BEN FUT.love.1sg.AGT and FUT.give.1sg.AGT

tigan -aris eva-in."
honour.PAT  2sg.TRG

(Saman  nernan-ye.ena)
 Second part  .PL.GEN

Edauyi nara -iya   natrayon-ang: "Pinyan, natr-u."
Now    speak.3sg:M priest  .AGT   Please  pray.IMP

Nay kada natra-iyan  soyang mali-iyan  sano:
And so   pray .3pl:M or     sing.3pl:M both

"Mea   Ø    nu- taboy tadayen leno-aris!
 Shall [be] AGT.clear always  sky .PAT

Ang     mea   maka -iyo   perin-in  eyrarya ten -ea  ayn-ena!
TRG:AGT shall shine.3sg:N sun  .TRG over    life.LOC 1pl.GEN

Ang     mea   hampang-oy -iyan  nerumaya -ye-in  ayn-aris sasano-ea  ayn-ena!
TRG:AGT shall hinder .NEG.3pl:M adversary.PL.TRG 1pl.PAT  way   .LOC 1pl.GEN

Ang     mea   nel -iyo   areka-in  ayn-aris nakas-isa-yam nihan-ye-aris!
TRG:AGT shall help.3sg:N earth.TRG 1pl.PAT  grow .CAU.BEN fruit.PL.PAT

Ang     mea   maka -iyo   kolun-in  ayn-yam sirutay-ea!
TRG:AGT shall shine.3sg:N moon .TRG 1pl.BEN night  .LOC

Mea   Ø    nu- taran karon-ang sitadayea ang     tengap-ayn-in  marin  -ea
Shall [be] AGT.quiet sea  .AGT when      TRG:AGT sail  .1pl.TRG surface.LOC

iyo  -ena!
3sg:N.GEN

Ang     mea   giha-iyo   pin -in  kong      behadang-ye-ea  ayn-ena nay
TRG:AGT shall blow.3sg:N wind.TRG inside_of sail    .PL.LOC 1pl.GEN and

sira    mea   hiro -isa-iyo  -ang marin-ye-in  ayn-ena!
TRG:PAT shall fresh.CAU.3sg:N.AGT face .PL.TRG 1pl.GEN

Ang     mea   maka -iyo   tampu-in  ling ayn-ea!
TRG:AGT shall shine.3sg:N luck .TRG onto 1pl.LOC

Ang     mea   kayv     -iyo   siru-in  tibeno-ena tipalatyān      -aris
TRG:AGT shall accompany.3sg:N star.TRG dusk  .GEN necklace_of_love.PAT

a-  avirang ayn-ena!
PAT.golden  1pl.GEN

Ang     mea   lant-iyan  Pangal-ye-in  nay Lomāya -ye-in  nu- silvaya  -ye
TRG:AGT shall lead.3pl:M god   .PL.TRG and servant.PL.TRG AGT.invisible.PL

iyat -ena ayn-aris sasano-ea  ayn-ena tigan -eri nay paronān   -eri!
3pl:M.GEN 1pl.PAT  way   .LOC 1pl.GEN honour.INS nay conficence.INS

Yom-u   adanya  -ley      adāre    edauyi nay mangasara pangoy  -ea!"
Be .IMP that_one.PAT:inan that_way now    and towards   eternity.LOC

Grammar

(see http://www.beckerscarsten.de/?conlang=ayeri for more detailed information)

Classification

Ayeri is a typical agglutinating language. There is a plethora of suffixes, but also a couple of prefixes. Also, Ayeri is some kind of a trigger language, that is, all arguments can be made subjects, not just the direct object.

Nouns

The noun morphology is quite easy in Ayeri. Nouns are not declined in that the stem changes, but case suffixes are attached usually:

   Role |     clitic form     ||     free form
   or   +---------------------++---------+-----------
   Case | animate | inanimate || animate | inanimate
   -----+---------+-----------++---------+-----------
   AGT  | -ang    | -reng     || ang     | eng
   PAT  | -aris   | -ley      || sira    | le
   -----+---------+-----------++---------+-----------
   BEN  |       -yam          ||        yam
   GEN  |       -ena          ||       (e)na
   LOC  |       -ea           ||        ya
   -----+---------------------++---------------------
   INS  |       -eri          ||       (e)ri
   CAU  |       -isa          ||        isa

The causative isn't used very often anymore. The free case markers are only used before proper names and to mark the role of the triggered argument on the verb.

AGT: The performer of an action.
PAT: The one immediately affected by an action (direct object). Is also used to mark the thing given.
BEN: The receiver of an object (indirect object)
GEN: The owner of something, also indicates the origin of something. Works like in English and German.
LOC: Indicates a place. Can also be translated with "at" or "in" if no other preposition is present.
INS: Indicates the means by which an action is performed.
CAU: The cause of something. Can also be translated as "On X's behalf"

A relative clause is formed in that either the descriptive NP follows immediately after the described NP, being introduced by the relative pronoun "si", or by placing it at the end of the sentence or wherever else in that the descriptive NP is introduced by the relative pronoun "si", which is then marked for the case of the head of the NP it describes.

The plural marker is "-ye".

There is no definite article as such, nouns are definite by default. Indefiniteness is marked as follows:

AGT: lo-
PAT: me-
OBL: ya-

Verbs

Verbs are conjugated for the following things in this order:

The last three categories are optional and are only used when needed.

The Trigger: As said above, the trigger morpheme (-in for animates, -on for inanimates) is used to focus on an argument. It is always the head of the NP that is marked. The original case marker of the argument is drawn in front of the verb stem and is seen as an independent (function) word, so the free form is used.

Tenses:

   - remote past: ka-
   -        past: ma-
   - near   past: va-

   - remote future: pa-
   -        future: se-
   - near   future: ni-

The present is not marked.

Moods ("°" means that the vowel of the verb is dropped when it ends in one):

Personal pronouns:

   Person | animate | inanimate
   -------+---------+-----------
   1sg    | -ay     |
   2sg    | -eva    | _
   3sg:M  | -iya    |  \
   3sg:F  | -iye    |   }- -ara
   3sg:N  | -iyo    | _/
   -------+---------+-----------
   1pl    | -ayn    |
   2pl    | -va     | _
   3pl:M  | -iyan   |  \
   3pl:F  | -iyen   |   }- -aran
   3pl:N  | -iyon   | _/

The agentive personal pronouns are bound morphemes that are attached directly to verbs as described above. If the agent is absent from the sentence, the verb may be marked immediately for the patient instead. Other than that, the pronouns listed above are free morphemes which must be marked for their respective case when they're used as proper NPs.

When a vowel follows, the "-n" of the third person plural pronouns changes into "-t-".

There are a couple of modal verbs, among them for example meāo (shall). These verbs are not conjugated, but instead, their complements are. This works just the other way round as in English, where the auxiliary verb is conjugated, but not its complement, the "main verb" (Hauptverb in German).

Furthermore, to form some kind of participle, the benefactive suffix "-yam" is attached to the verb stem. These participles behave very similar to verbal nouns in that they are not conjugated, but they're also unable to take nominal morphology. They also can't be triggered. Mostly, what follows is a patient. This construction can also be used to express "for Xing" and "(in order) to X". When used as a modal verb, again the complement is conjugated.

Passives are formed in that the patient is triggered. Other than that, quasi-passive statives (like "opened") can be formed by attaching the causative ending "-isa" to the verb stem. This derivation method can also be used to form "make sth X" constructions.

The verb "yomāo" (to be, to exist) is always dropped, except when marked for mood.

Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives agree with their head nouns in case and animacy:

       | animate | inanimate
   ----+---------+-----------
   AGT | nu-     | nu-
   PAT | a-      | e-
   OBL | ay-     | ey-

They also agree in number. The plural marker is "-ye".

Although adjectives have nominal agreement, they always follow their heads, i.e. you cannot place them anywhere in the sentence you like.

Adverbs don't agree with anything at all, so they necessarily need to follow their heads. Temporal adverbs and adverbs of manner can go anywhere in the sentence, but preferrably to the beginning or the end.

Syntax

Other

Long vowels are often due to two morphemes colliding, e.g. a + a = ā. This can also be due to derivation, like in "kanān" (wedding), which is derived from kana- (to wed) plus -an (nominalizer).

Vocabulary

adanya that one
adāre that way
angan poverty
-ara it (inanimate)
areka earth
avirang gold, golden
-ay I
-ayn we
banyan illness, disease, sickness
behadang sail
bituay body
davano today
dikang rite
edauyi now
-eva you
eyrarya over
giday sadness
gihāo to blow
hampangao to hinder
hiro fresh, new
idyān wealth
-ikan all, much, very
ikapāo to attach
ilao to give
-iya he
-iyan they
-iyat they
-iye she
-iyo it
kada hence, so, thus
kamo same
kanān wedding
kananvan bride
kanāyon bridegroom
karon sea, ocean, water
Kayān Mark
kayvao to accompany
kayvo with
kolun moon
kong in, into, inside of
ku- like
lantao to guide, to lead
leno heaven, sky
ling on, onto, up, upon, top of
lomāya servant
makāo to shine
makapran sunshine
maliao to sing
mangasara indicates motion away from the speaker to somewhere else
marin face, surface
meāo shall
menan first
mitanao to dwell, to live (somewhere)
nakasao to grow
narāo to speak, to say
nasyao to follow
natrao to pray
natrayon priest
nay and
nelao to help
nernan part, chapter
nerumaya adversary
nihan fruit
-oy not
palay happiness, fun
pangal god
pangoy eternity
paronān confidence
pebukāo to promise
perin sun
pin wind
pinyan please
saman second
sano both
sapin health
sasano way
se- will
seyaran rain
si which, what, who, that, ...
silvaya invisible
siru star(s)
sirutay night
sitadayea when
sitang- -self
soyang or
taboy clear
tadayen always, everytime
tampu luck
tapiao miday to put on (lit. "to put around")
taran quiet, still
tenan soul
tengapao to sail
tibeno dawn
tigan honour
tipal necklace
toray blessed
tyān love
Tyanisay Mary
tyāo to love
yomāo to be, to exist

Abbreviations

(The abbreviations follow mostly the Leipzig Glossing Rules, http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/files/morpheme.html)

1SG 1st person singular
2DU 2nd person dual
3PL 3rd person plual
... etc.
A agent agreement
AGT agentive case
ALL allative case
AOR aorist
D dative agreement
DAT dative case
F feminine
FUT future
INS instrumental case
LOC locative case
M masculine
OBJ objective case
P patient agreement
PRS present
PRT partitive case
REL relative
SBJ subjunctive
VN verbal noun

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February 19th, 2007
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