Ring C: 6/8: Urianian

Lars Finsen
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[ Urianian | Smooth English | Grammar | Vocabulary | Abbrevs. ]

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Urianian

Eru fanzirnat

(Dimun bom)

Nia geg erkil zendai genta aldik olnin. Zenid ging genta zende saini dina:

"Je tuni me Kayaan di fanzir, Tyanisaye, je da em minde je garmi, sevle je ure, zundi je semne, abdi je undi, je idam di usid, elni ma enjia je elni ma nevja. Nia je git enteden di kasisam je tasam."

Je zendi sai sama:

"Je tuni me Tyanisay di fanzir, Kayaani, je da em minde je garmi, sevle je ure, zundi je semne, abdi je undi, je idam di usid, elni ma enjia je elni ma nevj. Nia je git enteden di kasisam je tasam."

(Dimun eli)

Nia sai erkil: "Sile cuddi tivet." Je nu cudan is aspan efa isan:

"Fu gimin kur entede!
Tiu Sul sebi mitzant esan!
Nit en tribuan dezmini esan sindu esan!
Meu nit Zami freget akid!
Feu nut Mnadi naide!
Fu Maru mon fidguni esan sa etsu!
Bisu Unud nuni siglant esan je zundidu etsat esan!
Litu nut Cure!
Sinzu Tir Eiret genta esan Buret aldik!
Lismu nit tivi je umni isan enagdi sindu esan tani je nisti!
Ed Ikas je dini, nia je git enteda!"

Smooth Translation

Wedding ritual

(First part)

Now the priest gives the golden, blessed necklace to the bridegroom. The bridegroom puts the necklace on the bride, saying thus:

"And today I, Kayaan, marry you, Tyanisay, and I am yours in happiness and sadness, sunshine and rain, health and sickness, wealth and poverty, and I promise to live with you, with all my spirit and all my body. Now and forever love you and honour you."

And the bride says the same:

"And today I, Tyanisay, marry you, Kayaan, and I am yours in happiness and sadness, sunshine and rain, health and sickness, wealth and poverty, and I promise to live with you, with all my spirit and all my body. Now and forever love you and honour you."

(Second part)

Now the priest says: "Kindly pray!" And then they both pray or sing:

"May the sky always be clear!
May the Sun shine over our souls!
May our adversaries not hinder us on our way!
May the Earth help us growing fruits!
May the Moon light up the night for us!
May the Sea be calm when we sail upon its face!
May the wind blow into our sails and refresh our faces!
May luck shine on us!*
May the Star of Dawn follow our golden chain of love!
May the gods and their invisible servants guide us on our way, in honour and security!
Be The One and thus, now and forever!"

*) I am stretching Urianian idiom a little by saying "Litu nut Cure."

Grammar

The three most common noun classes may be called masculine, feminine and neuter in line with the usual Indoeuropean tradition. There are actually four representatives of other classes in the text, but all in the nominative, so I won't bother you with their forms. Urianian preserve all the original eight IE cases, and they are marked with characteristic endings:

     FS FP   MS    MP   NS    NP
NOM i  et   -     i    -     e
ACC en at   a     et   a     e
DAT e  ent  ai    ant  ai    ant
GEN et an   ia/ja an   ia/ja an
LOC u  esi  u     usi  u     usi
ABL et imat at    amat at    amat
INS e  imut i     it   i     it
VOC e  et   i     at   an    e

Uses of the various cases: NOM - for the subject of a clause, ACC - for the direct object, and for marking approach, DAT - for the indirect object, and for marking intent or precedence, GEN - marking ownership, agents of passive actions and certain other originative things, LOC - marking static locations, ABL - marking antecedence, opposition and the origin of motion, INS - marking the means to an end as well as adverbs and adverbials, including those of time, VOC - to address persons or other addressable entities.

In the unmarked nominative singular of masculine and neuter nouns whose roots end in a consonant cluster, an intrusive vowel, written u or i, will usually appear inside the cluster. This also happens in the unmarked 3rd person singular present of verbs.

Personal pronouns have their own particular forms in most of the cases:

     1S  1P    2S  2P   3S   3P
NOM me  numit de  jet  se   it
ACC mi  nit   di  ut   si   it
DAT me  nemi  du  umi  su   (e)mat
GEN ma  esan  da  usan sa   isan
LOC mi  nit   di  ut   im   use
ABL mit est   det umit imat (e)mat
INS                    imi  (e)mut

There are no particular vocative pronouns, but in polite addressing the plural forms of the 2nd person pronouns are used.

There is no definite/indefinite distinction, but a series of demonstrative endings in all the various case forms exist and are sometimes used for emphasis. Only one occurrence in the text above, though.

     FS     FP      MS    MP      NS    NP
NOM is     est     as    id      -     e
ACC iden   astet   andan estan   andat ed
DAT etsuj  astan   aidan anstin  aidan anstin
GEN esti   andisan its   andisan its   andisan
LOC edasun estes   idan  used    idan  used
ABL estit  emastin atant amast   atant amast
INS edi    emusta  idin  aistin  idin  aistin

Adjectives, on the other hand, are easy in Urianian. They do not reflect the case of the nouns they refer to, only the number, with singular unmarked and plural marked with -i, and the gender, with feminines also marked -i, in plural as well as singular. Regularly the adjectives follow the nouns they refer to. On the root is attached -ut for comparative, -ud for superlative and -ir for ultimative. There is a modern tendency for -ud to disappear and to be replaced by -ir. Any -i endings will be appended last.

Verbs have 4 numbered conjugations: 1. Verbs with roots ending in a vowel. 2. Verbs with a short final root vowel and a single final consonant. 3. Verbs with a long final root vowel and a single final consonant. 4. Verbs with a final consonant cluster (always a short final root vowel). Since the standardisation in the mid 1800s, vowel length is not marked. (Earlier, double vowels were sometimes used.) So the various conjugations are your only clue to the lengths of Urianian vowels when you see the language in writing.

Infinitives have the following endings: 1. de, 2. de/te after voiced/ unvoiced final consonants, 3. id, 4. id. They are used in vocabularies, and in sentences where another verb, often a modal auxiliary, is referring to the action of the infinitive, like in English "want to go", "like to sleep" for example, or when stating intent (English "in order to.")

Unlike infinitives and other verbal nouns, other forms of the verbs have personal endings: 1S: am, 2S: it, 3S: unmarked, 1P: ant 2P: id, 3P: an. There is no gender difference either in 3S or 3P. In the present tense there is no other marking of the verb and there is no difference between the conjugations.

In the past tense, the personal endings are modified:

    1&2  3&4
1S jam  em
2S jet  yt
3S i    i
1P jant ent
2P jed  yd
3P jan  en

In the future, a future marker is inserted before the personal endings:

    1&2  3&4
1S sam  isam
2S sit  esit
3S s    us
1P sant isant
2P sid  esid
3P san  isan

I will spare you for the perfects and the pluperfects, since they are not relevant for this text. Also, passives and reflexives (mediopassives) can be fun, but they are not relevant here.

More relevant are the imperatives:

    1   2    3    4
2S zu  zu   i    i
3S d   d    id   id
1P dat dat  idat idat
2P di  di   di   idi
3P nde inde ande ande

The 1st conjugation 3P form depends on the root vowel, which may or may not be changed: -a > -ainde, -e > -ynde, -i > -ynde, -o > -oinde, -u > -unde, -y > -ajinde. In the 2nd conjugation, if the final root consonant is unvoiced, the initial d is replaced with a t in 3S, 1P and 2P. In 2S, the z is devoiced, but retained in writing.

Subjunctives also are relevant:

Present tense:

    1&2  3&4   2bpv 2m
1S vam  avam  uam  bam
2S vit  avit  uit  bit
3S u    u     u    u
1P vant avant uant bant
2P vid  avid  uid  bid
3P van  avan  uan  ban

In the 2nd conjugation we have some exceptions again in that there are special forms if the root ends in b, p or v (see 2bpv above) or m (see 2m above).

In the past tense the short personal endings without initial j are used, except for 2bpv, where the long ones are used.

Subjunctives are used to mark the verb in a subordinate clause, or to somewhat diminish the certainty of the action referred to. But they have some other uses as well, for example as a sort of imperative where the imperativeness is somewhat less than a direct command. The subjunctive verb is then placed in front of the subject noun instead of after, which is otherwise conventional.

There are few irregular verbs in Urianian, but an important one is este, 'be':

    PRI  PAI  PRSB  PASB   IMP
1S em   im   fuam  fujam
2S et   it   fut   fujet  ezu
3S e    i    fu    fui    ed
1P sint sant fuant fujant edat
2P sid  sad  fud   fujed  edi
3P sin  san  fuan  fujan  ynde

In simple stative sentences, 'be' is often omitted.

Another one is sajid 'say':

    PRI    PAI    PRSB    PASB    IMP
1S sajam  sajem  saivam  saivem
2S sajit  sajyt  saivit  saivyt  saizu
3S sai    saji   saju    saivi   sajid
1P sajant sajent saivant saivent sajidat
2P sajid  sajyd  saivid  saivyd  saidi
3P sajan  sajen  saivan  saiven  sajande

Some introductory notes on participles. Urianian pretty frequently uses participles where other languages would have used little words like "which", "that", "who" etc. There are active, passive and stative participles, and all of them are inflected in most of the various cases. Urianian has inherited the active, passive and stative participles of Indoeuropean and in addition, perfect participles may be used in an active, stative or passive form. The inherited participles in many cases have shifted their allegiance around amongst the active, passive and stative classes.

For the purpose of this text it will suffice to consider endings of the traditionally active participle:

     1&2 3&4
NOM an  an (simple referring to an action, or for emphasis)
ACC na  ana/ina (referring to the action as a direct object, or with
a sense of approach)
DAT ne  une (action as indirect object, or marking intent, precedence
or effect)
GEN nat unat (attributive)
ABL nat unat (marking antecedence, cause, opposition)
INS ni  uni (concurrence in time)
LOC nu  unu (concurrence with little or no duration)

As Urianian is a pretty well marked language, word order is rather free and you may put any part of the sentence first for emphasis or rearrange words at will to suit your rhythm. However, SVO is customary. Attributes are generally postpositioned. Pronouns generally are prepositioned, but the longer ones may be postpositioned. Thus for example: "sa fred" - his brother, but "fred esan" - our brother.

Vocabulary

abud (NN) wealth
akid (V3) grow
aldik (ADJ) golden
aspid (V4) sing or melodiously recite verse
bisid (V3) blow
bom (ADJ) first
buri (NF) love, physical love
cudde (V2) talk
cudde tivet - talk to the gpds, pray
cure (N6) luck, favour
dezmin (NM) opponent, adversary
dimun (NF) part, section
dina (PRON) thus, accusative
dini (PRON) thus, instrumental
efa (N5) pair, both
eiri (NF) dawn
eli (ADJ) second, other
elin (NN) all, whole
en (ADV) not
enagd (ADJ) invisible
eni (NM/NF) spirit, soul (root enj-)
entedi (NF) eternity
erkil (NM/NF) ritual master, priest
eru (N4) rite, ritual
este (V2) be (irregular)
etsi (NF) ansikt
fanzirde (V2) bind oneself, marry
fede (V1) illuminate, light up
fidgid (V4) sail
freg (NM) fruit
garum (NM) sorrow
gegde (V2) give
genit (NM) necklace
gimin (NM) sky, heaven
gingid (V4) put on, wear
git (PRON) from here, from now
idid (V3) swear, promise
ik (NN/NM/NF) one, unity, entity
mituz (NM/NF) soul, inner self, alter ego
mnadi (NF) moon
mon (ADJ) still, calm
neu (NM) body, corpse (root nev-)
nia (ADV) now
nisut (NN) safety
nu (ADV) then, so, now, though, but
nun (NN) in, inside
olnin (ADJ) blessed
sajid (V3) say (irreg.)
sam (NN) same
seb (NN) above
semni (NF) health
sevli (NF) sunshine
sigul (NM) sail
sili (NF) kindness, benevolence, favour
sin (NM) road, way, march (root sind-)
sinzid (V4) follow
sul (NM) sun
tade (V3) honour, respect
tan (NM) honour, respect
tide (V1) shine, radiate
tir (NN) star
tiu (NM/NF) god (root tiv-)
tribde (V2) oppose, hinder
tun (NM) day
tuni (ADV) today
umun (NM/NF) servant, slave
unud (NN) poverty
unud (NM) wind
uri (NF) rain
usid (V3) live, stay
zami (NF) earth, soil
zenid (NM) bridegroom
zendi (NF) bride
zundidde (V2) freshen
zunud (NM) health

Abbreviations

1P 1st person plural
1S 1st person singular
2P 2nd person plural
2S 2nd person singular
3P 3rd person plural
3S 3rd person singular
ABL ablative
ACC accusative
ADJ adjective
ADV adverb
CONJ conjunction
DAT dative
FP feminine plural
FS feminine singular
GEN genitive
IMP imperative
INS instrumental
LOC locative
MP masculine plural
MS masculine singular
N4 noun of class 4
N5 noun of class 5
N6 noun of class 6
NF feminine noun
NM masculine noun
NN neuter noun
NOM nominative
NP neuter plural
NS neuter singular
PAI past indicative
PASB past subjunctive
PRI present indicative
PRON pronoun
PRSB present subjunctive
V1 verb of the 1st conjugation
V2 verb of the 2nd conjugation
V3 verb of the 3rd conjugation
V4 verb of the 4th conjugation
VOC vocative

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February 19th, 2007
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