Ring C: 6/8: Urianian
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Nia geg erkil zendai genta aldik olnin. Zenid ging genta zende saini dina:
"Je tuni me Kayaan di fanzir, Tyanisaye, je da em minde je garmi, sevle je ure, zundi je semne, abdi je undi, je idam di usid, elni ma enjia je elni ma nevja. Nia je git enteden di kasisam je tasam."
Je zendi sai sama:
"Je tuni me Tyanisay di fanzir, Kayaani, je da em minde je garmi, sevle je ure, zundi je semne, abdi je undi, je idam di usid, elni ma enjia je elni ma nevj. Nia je git enteden di kasisam je tasam."
Nia sai erkil: "Sile cuddi tivet." Je nu cudan is aspan efa isan:
"Fu gimin kur entede!
Now the priest gives the golden, blessed necklace to the bridegroom. The bridegroom puts the necklace on the bride, saying thus:
"And today I, Kayaan, marry you, Tyanisay, and I am yours in happiness and sadness, sunshine and rain, health and sickness, wealth and poverty, and I promise to live with you, with all my spirit and all my body. Now and forever love you and honour you."
And the bride says the same:
"And today I, Tyanisay, marry you, Kayaan, and I am yours in happiness and sadness, sunshine and rain, health and sickness, wealth and poverty, and I promise to live with you, with all my spirit and all my body. Now and forever love you and honour you."
Now the priest says: "Kindly pray!" And then they both pray or sing:
"May the sky always be clear!
*) I am stretching Urianian idiom a little by saying "Litu nut Cure."
The three most common noun classes may be called masculine, feminine and neuter in line with the usual Indoeuropean tradition. There are actually four representatives of other classes in the text, but all in the nominative, so I won't bother you with their forms. Urianian preserve all the original eight IE cases, and they are marked with characteristic endings:
FS FP MS MP NS NP NOM i et - i - e ACC en at a et a e DAT e ent ai ant ai ant GEN et an ia/ja an ia/ja an LOC u esi u usi u usi ABL et imat at amat at amat INS e imut i it i it VOC e et i at an e
Uses of the various cases: NOM - for the subject of a clause, ACC - for the direct object, and for marking approach, DAT - for the indirect object, and for marking intent or precedence, GEN - marking ownership, agents of passive actions and certain other originative things, LOC - marking static locations, ABL - marking antecedence, opposition and the origin of motion, INS - marking the means to an end as well as adverbs and adverbials, including those of time, VOC - to address persons or other addressable entities.
In the unmarked nominative singular of masculine and neuter nouns whose roots end in a consonant cluster, an intrusive vowel, written u or i, will usually appear inside the cluster. This also happens in the unmarked 3rd person singular present of verbs.
Personal pronouns have their own particular forms in most of the cases:
1S 1P 2S 2P 3S 3P NOM me numit de jet se it ACC mi nit di ut si it DAT me nemi du umi su (e)mat GEN ma esan da usan sa isan LOC mi nit di ut im use ABL mit est det umit imat (e)mat INS imi (e)mut
There are no particular vocative pronouns, but in polite addressing the plural forms of the 2nd person pronouns are used.
There is no definite/indefinite distinction, but a series of demonstrative endings in all the various case forms exist and are sometimes used for emphasis. Only one occurrence in the text above, though.
FS FP MS MP NS NP NOM is est as id - e ACC iden astet andan estan andat ed DAT etsuj astan aidan anstin aidan anstin GEN esti andisan its andisan its andisan LOC edasun estes idan used idan used ABL estit emastin atant amast atant amast INS edi emusta idin aistin idin aistin
Adjectives, on the other hand, are easy in Urianian. They do not reflect the case of the nouns they refer to, only the number, with singular unmarked and plural marked with -i, and the gender, with feminines also marked -i, in plural as well as singular. Regularly the adjectives follow the nouns they refer to. On the root is attached -ut for comparative, -ud for superlative and -ir for ultimative. There is a modern tendency for -ud to disappear and to be replaced by -ir. Any -i endings will be appended last.
Verbs have 4 numbered conjugations: 1. Verbs with roots ending in a vowel. 2. Verbs with a short final root vowel and a single final consonant. 3. Verbs with a long final root vowel and a single final consonant. 4. Verbs with a final consonant cluster (always a short final root vowel). Since the standardisation in the mid 1800s, vowel length is not marked. (Earlier, double vowels were sometimes used.) So the various conjugations are your only clue to the lengths of Urianian vowels when you see the language in writing.
Infinitives have the following endings: 1. de, 2. de/te after voiced/ unvoiced final consonants, 3. id, 4. id. They are used in vocabularies, and in sentences where another verb, often a modal auxiliary, is referring to the action of the infinitive, like in English "want to go", "like to sleep" for example, or when stating intent (English "in order to.")
Unlike infinitives and other verbal nouns, other forms of the verbs have personal endings: 1S: am, 2S: it, 3S: unmarked, 1P: ant 2P: id, 3P: an. There is no gender difference either in 3S or 3P. In the present tense there is no other marking of the verb and there is no difference between the conjugations.
In the past tense, the personal endings are modified:
1&2 3&4 1S jam em 2S jet yt 3S i i 1P jant ent 2P jed yd 3P jan en
In the future, a future marker is inserted before the personal endings:
1&2 3&4 1S sam isam 2S sit esit 3S s us 1P sant isant 2P sid esid 3P san isan
I will spare you for the perfects and the pluperfects, since they are not relevant for this text. Also, passives and reflexives (mediopassives) can be fun, but they are not relevant here.
More relevant are the imperatives:
1 2 3 4 2S zu zu i i 3S d d id id 1P dat dat idat idat 2P di di di idi 3P nde inde ande ande
The 1st conjugation 3P form depends on the root vowel, which may or may not be changed: -a > -ainde, -e > -ynde, -i > -ynde, -o > -oinde, -u > -unde, -y > -ajinde. In the 2nd conjugation, if the final root consonant is unvoiced, the initial d is replaced with a t in 3S, 1P and 2P. In 2S, the z is devoiced, but retained in writing.
Subjunctives also are relevant:
1&2 3&4 2bpv 2m 1S vam avam uam bam 2S vit avit uit bit 3S u u u u 1P vant avant uant bant 2P vid avid uid bid 3P van avan uan ban
In the 2nd conjugation we have some exceptions again in that there are special forms if the root ends in b, p or v (see 2bpv above) or m (see 2m above).
In the past tense the short personal endings without initial j are used, except for 2bpv, where the long ones are used.
Subjunctives are used to mark the verb in a subordinate clause, or to somewhat diminish the certainty of the action referred to. But they have some other uses as well, for example as a sort of imperative where the imperativeness is somewhat less than a direct command. The subjunctive verb is then placed in front of the subject noun instead of after, which is otherwise conventional.
There are few irregular verbs in Urianian, but an important one is este, 'be':
PRI PAI PRSB PASB IMP 1S em im fuam fujam 2S et it fut fujet ezu 3S e i fu fui ed 1P sint sant fuant fujant edat 2P sid sad fud fujed edi 3P sin san fuan fujan ynde
In simple stative sentences, 'be' is often omitted.
Another one is sajid 'say':
PRI PAI PRSB PASB IMP 1S sajam sajem saivam saivem 2S sajit sajyt saivit saivyt saizu 3S sai saji saju saivi sajid 1P sajant sajent saivant saivent sajidat 2P sajid sajyd saivid saivyd saidi 3P sajan sajen saivan saiven sajande
Some introductory notes on participles. Urianian pretty frequently uses participles where other languages would have used little words like "which", "that", "who" etc. There are active, passive and stative participles, and all of them are inflected in most of the various cases. Urianian has inherited the active, passive and stative participles of Indoeuropean and in addition, perfect participles may be used in an active, stative or passive form. The inherited participles in many cases have shifted their allegiance around amongst the active, passive and stative classes.
For the purpose of this text it will suffice to consider endings of the traditionally active participle:
1&2 3&4 NOM an an (simple referring to an action, or for emphasis) ACC na ana/ina (referring to the action as a direct object, or with a sense of approach) DAT ne une (action as indirect object, or marking intent, precedence or effect) GEN nat unat (attributive) ABL nat unat (marking antecedence, cause, opposition) INS ni uni (concurrence in time) LOC nu unu (concurrence with little or no duration)
As Urianian is a pretty well marked language, word order is rather free and you may put any part of the sentence first for emphasis or rearrange words at will to suit your rhythm. However, SVO is customary. Attributes are generally postpositioned. Pronouns generally are prepositioned, but the longer ones may be postpositioned. Thus for example: "sa fred" - his brother, but "fred esan" - our brother.
|aspid||(V4)||sing or melodiously recite verse|
|buri||(NF)||love, physical love|
|cudde||tivet||- talk to the gpds, pray|
|eni||(NM/NF)||spirit, soul (root enj-)|
|erkil||(NM/NF)||ritual master, priest|
|fanzirde||(V2)||bind oneself, marry|
|fede||(V1)||illuminate, light up|
|gingid||(V4)||put on, wear|
|git||(PRON)||from here, from now|
|ik||(NN/NM/NF)||one, unity, entity|
|mituz||(NM/NF)||soul, inner self, alter ego|
|neu||(NM)||body, corpse (root nev-)|
|nu||(ADV)||then, so, now, though, but|
|sili||(NF)||kindness, benevolence, favour|
|sin||(NM)||road, way, march (root sind-)|
|tiu||(NM/NF)||god (root tiv-)|
|1P||1st person plural|
|1S||1st person singular|
|2P||2nd person plural|
|2S||2nd person singular|
|3P||3rd person plural|
|3S||3rd person singular|
|N4||noun of class 4|
|N5||noun of class 5|
|N6||noun of class 6|
|V1||verb of the 1st conjugation|
|V2||verb of the 2nd conjugation|
|V3||verb of the 3rd conjugation|
|V4||verb of the 4th conjugation|
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