Ring B: 6/22: Minza
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I vezngyluhł, ymagha vonich dylmölys iech kara. Kyzo vö dylu chažlat iecha. I chažla, ymagha kyzich vö dylu kövut iecha.
Isionu nauki zy chažlale:
Ři loga kama Iechan.
Isionu nauki zy kövule:
Ři loga kama Maran.
Kasařu myvich sa miavi ja magha.
Kimagha dařvich razgiuhł.
Words of joining
Great leader, I wish to take this golden necklace. Set it on this man's neck. Man, I wish to set it on this woman's neck.
Next the man said:
My name is Iechan.
Next the woman said:
My name is Maran.
I am ready to join the old one who is wishing for it.
They wish to set off on a great journey.
Basic word order in Minza is Verb - Object - Subject, with modifiers following the word they modify, although phrases may be placed before the main verb for emphasis. When addressing someone, the person being addressed is named first (marked by the vocative preposition "i"), followed by the main verb.
Nouns have six basic cases: absolutive, genitive, ergative, dative, locative, and instrumental. The absolutive case is used for the subject of intransitive verbs and the direct object of transitive verbs; the subject of a transitive verb is expressed with the ergative case. The genitive case may be used to modify another noun (as in "the color of the sky"), as an additional object for certain verbs, and various other situations. The plural suffix, if any, is added before the case suffix.
Some nouns in Minza have an implicit argument which, if expressed, takes the genitive case and follows the noun. An example of this sort of word is "part": a part is always a part *of* something, even if the thing it's a part of is not explicitly stated. These nouns are indicated in the vocabulary list as "n1".
Proper names (Iechan, Maran) are capitalized.
Adjectives follow nouns and agree with the case of the noun. Adjectives can also follow a verb and act as adverbs. As with nouns, some adjectives in Minza also take an implicit argument, which takes the genitive case if explicitly stated (although the distinction is not imporant in this text). Adjectives can also be used as stative verbs (e.g., "to be round", "to be green").
The main verb of a clause is identified by having a prefix agreeing with either the subject or object of the verb (the absence of a prefix represents third person singular absolutive), and a suffix which indicates the aspect of the verb (perfective or imperfective). The subject and objects of a verb typically follow the verb, with the subject at the end of the clause. Verbs following a relative pronoun (ja) lack a subject/object prefix, but keep the aspect suffix. Following an auxiliary verb, the infinitive ending -ich may be used (replaced in less formal usage by the subjunctive -i).
Minza has various derivational suffixes which may be attached to a root or another derived stem to produce a new word stem, which may be a different part of speech from the original root. For example:
|čev-||"to produce offspring" (verb)|
|čev-il-||"able to produce offspring"; "fertile" (adjective)|
|čev-ili-ła||"quality of being fertile"; "fertility" (noun)|
Minza also has numerous compounds. Adjectives are often combined with a noun in a compound word to specify more precisely the scope of what the adjective applies to. For example:
|tiziunřuchci||"red in relation to a wing or wings", "having red on the wings"|
|chiklis tiziunřuchci||"red-winged blackbird"|
|-Ø||(no suffix) absolutive|
|-ła||(adj > n) quality of being x, -ness.|
|-ys||(adj > n) something which has the quality of x.|
|Ø-||(no prefix) 3rd person singular absolutive|
|i-||3rd person singular ergative|
|ka-||1st person singular absolutive|
|ki-||3rd person plural ergative|
|ky-||1st person plural ergative|
|li-||3rd person plural absolutive|
|n-||reflexive prefix (absolutive object is same as ergative subject)|
|ri-||1st person plural absolutive|
|y-||1st person singular ergative|
|-evi||(v > adj) absolutive participle; -ing, -ed.|
|-ich||infinitive (old-style, formal)|
|-il(i)||(v > adj) possible, able to do x or be x-ed.|
|-yk||(v > n) event of x-ing, -tion.|
|-yl||(v > n) ergative verbal noun; one who does, -er.|
|-yli||(v > adj) ergative participle; -ing.|
One of the interesting challenges in translating this text from Taruven was the frequent use of "travel" as a metaphor. Minza has a handful of possible equivalents for "travel", but not a single one that fits all the different contexts in which the word occurs. Another difficulty is the fact that "he" and "she" are translated by the same word, "ba"; in cases where the difference is significant, I had to use "man" and "woman".
Verbs are listed in their dictionary form, which has the subjunctive suffix -i attached; this suffix should be removed before attaching other verb suffixes. Nouns and adjectives are listed in the absolutive singular.
|ba||pron he, him, she, her, it (3rd person).|
|bieni||a0 always, forever, at all times.|
|buři||n1 shadow, shade.|
|caru||n1 part, component.|
|čevi||v1 to produce offspring; breed, procreate.|
|chažla||n1 man (adult male human).|
|chuči||a0 last, final.|
|dařvi||v2 to set off, depart (for).|
|dyl||n1 neck (anat.)|
|dzuši||a0 future, yet to come.|
|fohřł||n0 path, trail.|
|gieni||v1 to do, perform (a task, etc.).|
|guoři||v1 to destroy, disassemble, take apart.|
|iech||pron this (the one over here).|
|ihdła||n0 boat, ship.|
|ja||conj that, which (relative pronoun).|
|kam||pron I, me (absolutive case).|
|kar||n0 (a quantity of) gold (Au, element 79).|
|keh||pron I (ergative case).|
|kohti||v2 to hold, grasp, carry.|
|kövu||n1 woman (adult female human).|
|kyzi||v2 to set (put into place).|
|lahs||n0 fire, combustion.|
|loga||n1 name, label.|
|luhvi||a0 beautiful, elegant, graceful.|
|łu||pron they, them.|
|maghi||v2 to hope, wish for, desire, want.|
|miavi||a0 old (not young).|
|möli||a0 round, circular.|
|mözi||v2 to become; get, grow (in the sense "become"), turn (into).|
|myvi||v2 to join, connect (two things to each other).|
|nami||a1 good (for).|
|nasi||v2 to begin, to start (doing something)|
|nauki||a0 following, next.|
|pöřu||n0 tree (woody plant).|
|razgi||n1 trip, journey.|
|řelni||vt to provide (for) (ABS = recipient; thing provided takes GEN).|
|ři||v to be (copula).|
|sa||pron the ... one, a ... one (e.g., the blue one, a slow one).|
|saři||v-aux to be ready (to).|
|sevi||v2 to pass, to traverse, go through (or past), come through (or past).|
|sioni||v2 to speak, say, talk.|
|sö||prep + LOC on, at (time).|
|soni||v2 to go with, come with, accompany.|
|šengi||a0 lucky, fortunate.|
|šumi||v2 to harvest, reap.|
|taži||a0 big, great, large.|
|teki||v2 to avoid.|
|veski||v2 to love.|
|vezngi||v2 to be in charge of; have authority over.|
|vindra||n0 (a quantity of) water.|
|vö||prep + LOC. at, in (place).|
|voni||v2 to take (to a destination), to bring, to convey.|
|ziak||n0 date, day, period of planetary rotation.|
|ziu||v-aux will (future action).|
|zomi||v2 to fit, be suitable (in size/shape).|
|zy||pron the following:|
|žazi||v2 to put together; build, construct, make.|
|a0||an ordinary adjective|
|a1||an adjective with an implicit argument|
|n0||an ordinary noun|
|n1||a noun with an implicit argument|
|v1||a verb with one argument (intransitive verb)|
|v2||a verb with two arguments (transitive verb)|
|v-aux||an auxiliary verb (followed by another verb)|
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