Ring B: 21/22: Naisek
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Lalbai ham girgixam po ham baigixam
Ah arkaxnor swali jemli leihanali besil gixnel:
Hafkubor swali natsu (1) hi suni rok launi.
Jesmiti dosofax girgixai baigixa.
There are some other oddities that probably wouldn't occur in a native text.
Song of the Bride and the Bridegroom
Oh may you tell all spiritual beings these promises:
Let's give all of you thanks for the whole beautiful thing.
Giving a bride a bridegroom is good
Nouns are inflected for number and case and are classified as either vowel-stems or consonant-stems. Fortunately, the consonant-stem forms occuring take the same endings as the vowel-stem forms occurring. The core cases (absolutive, dative, and ergative) indicate role groups: Ergative = donor, agent, actor Dative = recipient, perceiver Absolutive = thing given, patient, intransitive subject, clarifier
Adjectives are inflected for gender as well as number and case and agree with their nouns. The animate gender of adjectives is formed by adding -a to the stem and the inanimate gender is formed by adding -i. These modified stems then take the same number and case endings as vowel-stem nouns. Adverbs are formed by adding -u instead of the gender suffix.
The noun and adjective number and case suffixes occurring are:
|Singular Absolutive||-||Plural Absolutive||-l|
|Singular Dative||-i||Plural Dative||-li|
|Singular Genitive||-m||Plural Genitive||-lum|
|Singular Temporal||-u *||Plural Temporal||-lu|
|Singular Instrumental -pe|
* The combination -i + -u becomes -yu and final o + -u becomes u.
Prepositions take the genitive case. Relative pronouns are placed before their prepositions.
Verbs are inflected for mood, tense, person, number, and subject case. A limited number of combinations occur in the text. Aspect is either implied by the tense and mood (perfective or imperfective), or is specified using some periphrastic construction.
The present tense (indicative mood) and the imperative mood stems are formed by adding either -u, -i, or nothing to the stem. This added vowel may also occur between a mood stem and the personal ending. A given verb will have only a present tense or an imperative mood, but not both.
The subjunctive mood stems are formed by adding -ax. This stem is also used for the infinitive and the prospective participle. A purpose clause may be headed by either an infinitive or a subjunctive verb. The verb stem bili becomes biy- when this is added.
The cotemporal mood stems are formed by adding -ok. The cotemporal acts like the indicative, except the tense is relative, not absolute.
The verbal noun is formed by adding -in (-hin after vowel-stem verbs). The verbal noun used with the copula to form the habitual aspect.
A verb agrees with the highest case in its argument structure according to the ergative > dative > absolutive hierarchy. The proclitics change a verb's argument structure:
|do-||deletes the verb's ergative argument; the agreement then is either dative or absolutive.;|
|ho-||adds a dative argument;|
|co-||makes a verb impersonal; it then takes absolutive agreement.|
A limited number of person, number, and subject case combinations occur in the text. These are:
|-bor||1st person inclusive plural ergative|
|-nor||2nd person plural ergative|
|-i||3rd person singular absolutive|
|-to||3rd person plural absolutive|
|-twe||3rd person plural dative|
The forms of the copula are similar to those of a normal verb.
|balum||*||1st person, inclusive plural, genitive|
|bili-||V Irr||to cause, make|
|buxmit-||V||to be happy|
|d-||A||which, relative, restrictive|
|hafk-||V||to thank (Dat for Abs)|
|jesmit-||V||to be good|
|lo||C||introduces subordinate clause|
|mi-||V Irr||to have|
|natse||*||2nd person, plural, partitive|
|naus-||V Imp||to shade|
|noku||C||(followed by purpose clause)|
|pald-||V Imp||to rain|
|rasb-||V||to protect (Dat from Abs)|
|sof-||V||to give (Abs to Dat)|
|t-||A||which, relative, non-restrictive|
|xanhit-||V||to be bright|
|V Imp||Verb, Impersonal|
|V Irr||Verb, Irregular|
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